Ebola From Belgium To Congo
Medical research and investigation revealed that many countries were actively engaged in human experimentation. But an American scientist who frequently appears after the Second World War is the USA army captain Daniël Carleton Gajdusek.
He visited from 1948 till 1954 respectively, on behalf of the US army command post-war Germany, Czechoslovakia, Congo/Zaire, Finland, South Korea, Crimea, and the former Yugoslavia, while he was a staff member of the Institut Pasteur in Iran from 1952 to 1953.
During this period he always was involved in Haemorrhagic viruses, nowadays know as Ebola. Moreover, he discovered an Ebola-like virus at his residence Prospect Hill and of course named the virus after it.
Lee, PW; Amyx, HL; Gajdusek, DC; Yanagihara, RT; Goldgaber, D; Gibbs, CJ Jr. (1982). "New hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome-related virus in rodents in the United States". Lancet. (8312): 1405.
Many names are given to hemorrhagic viruses mostly called after the place of discovering but they always lead to the most known Ebola symptoms with a tremendous high fertility rate. The Ebola virus belongs to the Filoviridae (Marburgvirus, Ebolavirus), Arenaviridae (Lyssavirus, Machupovirus, Junin virus), Bunyaviridae (Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo virus, Rift Valley virus), Flaviviridae (Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, Kyasanur Forest virus, Omsk virus) en Togaviridae (Chikungunya virus).
So the origin of the same virus are named differently but they all cause symptoms familiar with Ebola.
Once in 1976, a research team had been formed, including Belgian Aids researcher Peter Piot, to meet at the Antwerp Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine.
To their surprise, they didn’t find only members of the American National Institute of Health but also many others, including the director of the American National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases NIAID, and surprisingly the director Peter Piot of the Prince Leopold Institute itself, the so-called discoverer of the Ebola virus.
The highly experienced doctors at the American Center for Disease Control had enrolled an unfamiliar epidemiologist from Johns Hopkins Hospital, who told Piot and others exactly how the Ebola investigation in Zaire should be given.
The plan is to hide the result of the investigation from the public as a medical crime. And now we have to face the tenth Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic Congo.
GAJDUSEK DC. Viral hemorrhagic fevers-special reference to hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (epidemic hemorrhagic fever). J Pediatr 1962; 60: 841-857.
CLEMENT J, VAN RANST M. Hantavirus infecties in België. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg
CLEMENT J, McKenna P, AVSIC-ZUPANC T, SKINNER CR. Rat-transmitted hantavirus disease in Sarajevo. Lancet 1994 ; 344 : 131.
At the beginning of the former century, new concerns about bio-weapons being used to generate terror and also with a series of new disease-causing microbes have resulted in infections and deaths of workers studying them in the laboratories.
And now we have bats, monkeys, tics, swine, horse flies and mosquitos are spreading genetic manipulated diseases made in biowarfare Centers throughout the hearts of all epidemics.
In 1944, Soviet scientists first identified the Ebola disease, then called Crimean hemorrhagic fever (Ebola), in Crimea. They established its viral etiology by a passage of the virus through human "volunteers," without reporting the fatality rate, and were unable to isolate the agent at that time. And Belgium professor Peter Piot calls himself still the Ebola discoverer with so many nicknames.....
KANERVA M, MUSTONEN J, VAHERI A. Pathogenesis of Puumala and other Hantavirus infections. Rev Med Virol 1998 ; 8 : 67-86.
During the Korean War (1950 - '53) more than 3,000 American soldiers were affected by a disease with symptoms similar to Ebola but the virus was called simply: 'Korean hemorrhagic fever' (KHF).
In 1934, 'nephropathia epidemic' (NE) was described in Sweden, which showed a large clinical and epidemiological similarity to the Ebola virus. Moreover, in 1962, Gajdusek postulated that NE in Scandinavia, KHF in Korea, HNN in the former USSR, EHF in China and Japan, Songo fever in China and epidemic nephritis (NE), were caused by one or a group of strongly related etiological agents. But again, all symptoms can be compared with Ebola.
The etiological agent was isolated by Lee et al. In 1976, Hantavirus (HTN), named after the river Hantaan that flows near the 38th latitude between North and South Korea.
In 1983, a World Health Organization working group brought these diseases, caused by closely related viruses, under the umbrella name 'hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome' (HFRS). But not Ebola!
In the United States of America, in particular, the 'Four Corners region' (New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah), viruses causing Ebola symptoms were also discovered near US Army biowarfare plants.
In fact, Duchin et al. described in 1993, a hantavirus with severe respiratory symptoms: 'hantavirus pulmonary syndrome' causing massive bleedings (HPS).
Moreover, many hundreds of Hantavirose cases were described in the 1990's in Bosnian and Croatian soldiers during the war in the former Yugoslavia showing Ebola viruses are always discovered during wars because that's the podium where criminal biowarfare scientists act.
SHOPE RE. Viral hemorrhagic fevers. In: WYNGAARDEN JB, SMITH LH,
BENNETT JC, Eds. Cecil’s Textbook of Medicine 19th Ed, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1994: 1879-1886.
Hantavirus disease. Lancet editorials 1990; 336 : 407-408.
CLEMENT J, VAN RANST M. Hantavirus infecties in België. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 1999 ; 61 : 707-717 + bespreking, pp. 718-719.
BROWN WL. Trench nephritis. Lancet 1916 ; 1: 391-399.
LEE HW, LEE PW, Johnson KM. Isolation of the etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 1978; 137: 298-308.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: Memorandum from a WHO meeting. WHO Bull 1983; 61: 269-275.
DUCHIN JS, Koster FT, Peters CJ et al. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. The Hantavirus Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 949-955.
HUK M, KURT A, TORSTENSSON S, LUNDKVIST Å, WIGER D, NIKLASSON B. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in north-east Bosnia. Lancet 1996 ; 347 : 56-57.
SCHMALJOHN C. Prospects for vaccines to control viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Rev Med Virol 1994 ; 4 : 185-196.
LUNDKVIST Å, NIKLASSON B. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and other Hantavirus infections. Rev Med Virol 1994 ; 4 : 177-184.
CLEMENT J, McKENNA P, COLSON P et al. Hantavirus epidemic in Europe, 1993. Lancet 1994 ; 343 : 114.
COLSON P, DAMOISEAUX PH, BRISBOIS J et al. Epidémie d’hantavirose dans l’Entre Sambre-et-Meuse. Année 1992-1993. Données Cliniques et Biologiques. Acta Clin Belg 1995 ; 50 : 197-206.
CROWCROFT NS, INFUSO A, ILEF D et al. Risk factors for human hantavirus infection: the Franco-Belgian collaborative case-control study during 1995-6 epidemic. BMJ 1999 ; 318 : 1737-1738.
LUNDKVIST Å, HUKIC M, HÔRLING J, GILLJAM M, NICHOL S, NIKLASSON B. Puumala and Dobrava viruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Bosnia-Herzegovina: evidence of highly cross-neutralizing antibody responses in early patient sera. J Med Virol 1997; 53: 51-59.
MEISEL H, LUNDKVIST Å, GANTZER K, BÄR W, SIBOLD C, KRÛGER DH. The first case of infection with Hantavirus Dobrava in Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998; 17: 884-892.
SCHREIBER M, Laue T, WOLFF C. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Germany. Lancet 1996 ; 347 : 336-337.
BRUMMER-KORVENKONTIO M, VAPALAHTI O, HENTTONEN H, KOSKELA P, KUUSISTO P, VAHERI A. Epidemiological study of nephropathia epidemica in Finland 1989-96. Scand J Infect Dis 1999; 31: 427-435.
LE GUENNO B, CAMPRASSE MA, GUILBAUT JC, LANOUX P, HOEN B. Hantavirus epidemic in Europe, 1993. Lancet 1994 ; 343 : 114-115.22.
ROLLIN P, COUDRIER D, SUREAU P. Hantavirus epidemic in Europe, 1993. Lancet 1994 ; 343 : 115.
ROLLIN P, COUDRIER D, SUREAU P. Hantavirus epidemic in Europe, 1993. Lancet 1994 ; 343 : 115.
PAPA A, JOHNSON AM, STOCKTON PC et al. Retrospective serological and genetic study of the distribution of Hantaviruses in Greece. J Med Virol 1998; 55: 321-327.
JORDANS JGM, GROEN J, CLEMENT J, LEFEVRE A, OSTERHAUS ADME. Infectie met het Hantavirus, een te weinig herkende oorzaak van acute nierinsufficiëntie. Ned Tijdschrift Geneeskd 1991 ; 135 : 791-793.
GROEN J, GERDING MN, JORDANS JGM, CLEMENT JP, NIEUWENHUIJS JHM, OSTERHAUS ADME. Hantavirus infections in the Netherlands: epidemiology and disease. Epidemiol Infect 1995 ; 114 : 373-383.
SOMMER AI, TRAAVIK T, MEHL R, BERDAL BP, DALRYMPLE J. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (nephropathia epidemica) in Norway: seroepidemiology 1981-1985. Scand J Infect Dis 1988; 20: 267-274.
NIKLASSON B, LEDUC J, NYSTROM K, NYMAN L. Nephropathia epidemica: incidence of clinical cases and antibody prevalence in an endemic area of Sweden.Epidemiol Infect 1987; 99: 559-62.
VAN DEN BERGE K, VERLINDE R. Knaagdieren. In: Faunabeheer. Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Departement Leeftmilieu en Infrastructuuur, Administratie Milieu, Natuur, Land- en Waterbeheer, Afdeling Bos & Groen 1999.
DESMYTER J, JOHNSON KM, DECKERS C, LEDUC JW, BRASSEUR F, VAN YPERSELE DE STRIHOU C. Laboratory rat associated outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome due to hantaan-like virus in Belgium. Lancet 1983 ; 24/31 : 1445-1448.
LLOYD G, BOWEN ETW, JONES N. HFRS outbreak associated with laboratory rats in the UK. Lancet 1984 ; i : 1175-1176.
McKenna P, CLEMENT J, MATTHYS P, COYLE PV, McCAUGHEY C. Serological evidence of Hantavirus disease in Northern Ireland. J Med Virol 1994; 43: 33-38.
GLASS G, CHILDS J, KORCH G, LEDUC J. Association of intraspecific wounding with hantaviral infection in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus). Epidemiol Infect 1988; 101: 459-472.
KAISER J. Human-to-human spread of hantavirus? Science 1993 ; 275 : 605.
NIKLASSON B, JONSSON M, WIDEGREN I, Persson K, LEDUC J. A study of nephropathia epidemica among military personnel in Sweden. Res Virol 1992 ; 143 : 211-214.
CLEMENT J, McKenna P, LEIRS H et al. Hantavirus infections in rodents. In: HORZINEK M (Ed.) Virus infections in rodents and lagomorphs. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1994: 295-316.
Hantaviridae. In: Armstrong D, COHEN J, Eds. Infectious Diseases. London: Mosby, 1999.
NATHANSON N, NICHOL S. Korean hemorrhagic fever and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: two examples of emerging hantaviral diseases. In: KRAUSE RM, Ed. Emerging Infections. Academic Press, San Diego: 1998; 365-374.
SETTERGREN B, LESCHINSKAYA, ZAGIDULLIN I et al. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: Comparison of clinical course in Sweden and in Western Soviet Union. Scand J Infect Dis 1991; 23: 549-552.
Decreet Profylaxe van besmettelijke ziekten van 5 april 1995 - Belgisch Staatsblad 14 juli 1995.
HUGGINS JW, KIM G, BRAND OM, McKee KT. Ribavirin therapy for Hantaan virus infection in suckling mice. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 489-497.
GUI XE, HO M, COHEN MS et al. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: treatment with recombinant interferon. J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 1047-1051.
HSIANG CM, HUGGINS JW, GUAN MY et al. Effective therapy of epidemic hemorrhagic fever with ribavirin in a double-blind random controlled trial II: improvement in some clinical signs of hematology, cardiology, technology, and immunology. In: 29th International Colloquium on Hantaviruses, Antwerp, Belgium, 10-11 December 1987.
VAN YPERSELE DE STRIHOU C, MARY JP. Hantavirus-related acute interstitial nephritis in Western Europe: expansion of a worldwide zoonosis. Q J Med 1989; 270: 941-950.
NIKLASSON B, HORNFELDT B, LUNDKVIST Å, BJORSTEN S, LEDUC J. Temporal dynamics of Puumala virus antibody prevalence in voles op nephropathia epidemica incidence in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995; 53: 134-140.
MEES G. In: Cursus bosbouwpraktijk. Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Departement Leefmilieu en Infrastructuur, Administratie Milieu, Natuur, Land- en Waterbeheer, Afdeling Bos & Groen 1991.
VAN LOOCK F, THOMAS I, CLEMENT J, GHOOS S, COLSON P. A case-control study after a Hantavirus outbreak in the South of Belgium: who is at risk? Clin Inf Disease 1999 ; 28 : 834-839.
DUCOFFRE G. Infectieuze aandoeningen (Peillaboratoria): informatie over hantavirose. Brochure uitgegeven door het Wetenschappelijk Instituut Volksgezondheid - Louis Pasteur, Afdeling Epidemiologie; http://www.iph.fgov.be/epidemio/epinl/plabnl/hanta.htm
VAN CHARANTE AW, GROEN J, OSTERHAUS ADME. Risk of infections transmitted by arthropods and rodents in forestry workers. Eur J Epidemiol 1994 ; 10 (3) : 349-351.
Occupationally acquired infections of the lung. In: STELLMAN JM, Ed. Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety. Geneva: International Labour Office, 1998: 10.83.
ZEITZ PS, GRABER JM, VOORHEES RA et al. Assessment of Occupational risk for Hantavirus Infection in Arizona and New Mexico. JOEM 1997 ; 39 (5) : 463-467.
All about Hantavirus. Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hanta/hps/index.htm
Disclaimer: "The views/contents expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not neccessarily reflect those of Modern Ghana. Modern Ghana will not be responsible or liable for any inaccurate or incorrect statements contained in this article."
Reproduction is authorised provided the author's permission is granted.