Contraceptive is the act of using drug to prevent conception as results of sexual intercourse. There are many different methods and types of contraception including; long-acting reversible contraception such as the implant or intra uterine device (IUD), hormonal contraception such as the pill or depo provera injection, barrier methods such as the condoms, emergency contraception, fertility awareness and permanent contraception such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.
The long-acting contraception is a contraceptive that lasts for a long time; there are two types, the IUD that lasts for five to ten years and the implant that lasts for three or five years. They are sometimes called the “fit and forget” contraception because you don’t need to remember it every day or every month. They are the most effective types of contraception. They are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy
The hormonal contraceptives use hormones to prevent pregnancy, they include the pill and the Depo Provera injection. There are two types of pill: combined oral contraceptive pill and progestogen-only contraceptive pill. You take one pill each day. The pill is more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy if you take it correctly. The Depo Provera injection is another type of hormonal contraception. You get an injection every three months. If you get your injections on time, Depo Provera is more than 99% effective.
Barrier methods stop sperm from entering the vagina. The two barrier methods are condoms and internal condoms. Condoms protect against sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as well as unintended pregnancy.
Emergency contraception is used in the case of emergency that is to prevent pregnancy if; you haven't used protection, your normal contraception fails e.g. condom splits, you have missed more than one contraceptive pill, you have been vomiting or had diarrhea while on the pill, you have missed your injection, you have been forced to have sex without contraception and any other emergencies.. there are two options for emergency contraception; the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) or a copper IUD. The ECP is approved to be taken up three days after unprotected sex. For women of an average weight, the ECP is 98% effective. For women who weigh more than 70kg, the ECP is less effective and a copper IUD is recommended. Women who weigh more than 70kg and choose to take ECP, should ask if taking a double dose is the right option for them. The copper IUD can be inserted up to five days after unprotected sex and is more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.
Fertility awareness is just to learn the signs of fertility in your menstrual cycle to help you plan or avoid a pregnancy, knowing your time of ovulation.
Permanent contraception, sometimes called sterilization, prevents all future pregnancies. It is very difficult or impossible to reverse. For males it is vasectomy and for females, it is tubal ligation. Female sterilization also known as the tubal ligation is a surgery done to permanently prevent pregnancy by blocking or sealing the fallopian tube to prevent the eggs from reaching the sperm and becoming fertilized. The male sterilization also known as vasectomy is a surgical procedure to cut and seal the tubes that carry man’s sperm to permanently prevent pregnancy.
Deciding on which of the methods listed above suit you, one must consider a number of factors including the age, smoke history, medical and family history, and any medicines one is taking, these factors can interfere in the activity of which method one chooses.
There are several benefits of contraceptives of which some are; reduces the risk of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, resulting in fewer infected babies and orphans; Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women, Reducing adolescent pregnancies and slowing population growth.
PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST
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