Top 6 Benefits of Legumes
There's a good chance you've heard of them and an even better chance you've had them on your plate at one point or another. But exactly what are legumes?
These vegetables pack in fiber and protein, plus an array of vitamins and minerals. They're low in calories and a staple in vegetarian diets and vegan diets worldwide.
However, legumes have been laden with controversy because they contain compounds called anti-nutrients, which interfere with nutrient absorption. Luckily, there are methods that can be used to minimize the effects of these anti-nutrients, allowing you to reap the full benefits and nutrition of this versatile ingredient.
What Are Legumes?
According to Merriam-Webster, the legumes definition is: “the fruit or seed of plants of the legume family (such as peas or beans) used for food.”
This legumes definition encompasses the fruit or seed of any plant in the family Fabaceae. This makes it a little tricky to define exactly what legumes are, as this family of plants includes a whopping 19,500 different species.
Though there are thousands of different types of legumes, some of the most common legume varieties include:
Note that peanuts are the only variety of nut included on this list. This is because, unlike other types of nuts, peanuts grow underground and belong to the Fabaceae family of plants.
Legumes have long been a dietary staple in many cultures, with some evidence showing that they began rapidly diversifying to form different species as many as 2 million to 4 million years ago in the Andes.
- High in Protein
So what are legumes good for? For starters, most legumes are packed with protein and are considered one of the best sources of plant-based protein.
Chickpeas and navy beans, for example, each contain 15 grams of protein per one-cup serving while white beans contain 19 grams of protein for the same amount. (3, 4, 5)
Protein is a crucial part of the diet and critical to cellular function and muscle growth. (6)
For this reason, legumes become especially important in vegan and vegetarian diets and are often used as a staple source of protein.
When it comes to weight loss, eating enough protein can also encourage satiety and keep you feeling full while increasing your metabolism and the amount of calories you burn after a meal.
Including even just one serving of legumes in your diet each day can be an excellent way to help you meet your protein needs.
- Promote Regularity
In addition to their impressive protein content, legumes also contain a hearty dose of dietary fiber.
One cup of cooked lentils, for instance, contains 16 grams of fiber, or up to 64 percent of the daily recommended value.
When you eat fiber, it moves through your digestive tract slowly and adds bulk to the stool to aid in its passage.
This is especially beneficial when it comes to constipation. In fact, increasing your fiber intake is one of the first lines of defense to help get things moving.
One analysis published in 2012 looked at five different studies and found that increased dietary fiber intake was able to significantly increase stool frequency in participants with constipation.
However, it's important to keep in mind that you should increase fiber intake slowly and make sure to drink plenty of water as well. Sudden increases in fiber intake can cause unpleasant symptoms like gas, cramps or bloating.
- Aid in Weight Loss
If you're looking to shed some pounds, you might want to consider adding a few servings of legumes into your diet.
Not only are legumes high in fiber and protein, both of which can help promote satiety and ward off hunger, but legume consumption has also been associated with weight loss.
One study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition followed 1,475 participants over a span of eight years. Researchers found that those who ate beans regularly had a lower body weight, smaller waist size and a 22 percent lower risk of obesity.
Legumes are also very nutrient-dense foods, meaning they are low in calories but cram tons of vitamins, minerals and nutrients into each serving. This makes it easier to optimize the calories that you're taking in on a weight-loss diet.
- Boost Heart Health
It goes without saying that the heart is one of the most crucial organs in the body. It pumps out blood to all of the tissues in your body and supplies them with the oxygen and nutrients they need to function and thrive.
Naturally, protecting the health of your heart is critical, as heart disease is the most common cause of death worldwide.
Paired with an otherwise healthy diet and active lifestyle, adding a serving or two of legumes to your plate each day can have a big impact on heart health.
A 2011 study showed that a diet rich in legumes can decrease both total and bad LDL cholesterol.
Another study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that eating legumes was associated with a decreased risk of heart disease.
Other research has found additional heart-healthy benefits of legumes, such as decreasing triglycerides, blood pressure and inflammation.
- Contain Important Vitamins and Minerals
Besides being rich in both protein and fiber, legumes are chock-full of vitamins and minerals as well.
Most legume varieties are high in micronutrients like folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese and potassium.
A cup of lentils, for example, provides 90 percent of your daily folate needs and 37 percent of the iron you need in a day.
For this reason, legumes are an excellent way to round out a diet that may be lacking in certain nutrients.
Vegetarians and vegans, for instance, may especially benefit from increasing legume intake to ensure that their needs for these important micronutrients are met.
- Stabilize Blood Sugar
So what are legumes good for besides providing a concentrated dose of protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals; improving heart health; preventing constipation; and helping you drop a few pounds?
In addition to all of the previously mentioned impressive health benefits, legumes are also excellent at regulating your blood sugar. The high amount of fiber found in legumes works to slow the absorption of sugar in the bloodstream and maintain blood sugar levels.
A 2014 study with over 2,000 participants found that blood sugar levels, among other factors, were lower in those who regularly ate legumes compared to those who didn't.
Coupled with low-glycemic fruits, non-starchy vegetables and a good source of protein, legumes can be a healthy addition to the diet and can help keep blood sugar stable.
Side Effects of Legumes
Although legumes are loaded with health benefits, there are also some drawbacks to including them in your diet that should be considered.
Legumes contain “anti-nutrients,” or compounds that can interfere with the absorption of important micronutrients like iron and calcium.
The most prevalent anti-nutrient found in legumes is phytic acid, the major storage form of phosphorus, which is found in foods like cereals, legumes and nuts. The problem is that phytic acid can bind to and prevent the absorption of certain minerals, including iron, zinc calcium, magnesium and manganese.
Over time, this can cause nutrient deficiencies for individuals who frequently eat legumes. However, keep in mind that this is much more likely to affect vegetarians than meat eaters. In fact, nutrient deficiencies as a result of phytic acid really only affect those with a diet composed mostly of cereals, legumes and grains.
Lectins are another type of anti-nutrient found in legumes. Lectins resist digestion and can even damage the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
Fortunately, by practicing proper preparation techniques, the harmful effects of the anti-nutrients found in legumes can be minimized.