Ghana’s building material and construction market are ripe with tremendous opportunities. This growth has been spurred by an increase in demand for both residential and industrial properties.
Residential and commercial developments dominate the property market. The residential market is the most active, registering an estimated 85,000 transactions per annum over the past decade, according to Ghana Investment Promotion Company (GIPC). Commercial property is the second-largest segment in the market and includes office accommodation and retail space.
The industrial segment is significantly smaller than the commercial market, while recreational and civic or cultural property development is virtually non-existent.
Despite the spike in the sector, experts predict that the housing deficit in Ghana is more than one million homes. And to address this deficit, there is a need to deliver approximately 150,000 housing units per annum for the next 20 years. According to Samuel Amegayibor, the Executive Secretary of the Ghana Real Estates Developers Association (GREDA), the total housing shortage in the country reached 5.7 million units in 2020. And more than 50% of Ghana's population live in substandard houses.
Data from Statista shows that about 7.1 million people presently live in slums.
The government of Ghana has done so much work in curbing the issue. One example is the Saglemi Affordable Housing Project introduced by President John Mahama’s administration. Sadly the project was stalled “over allegations that the country was short-changed with the provision of 1,500 housing Units as against the projected 5000-housing units.”
President Akuffo-Addo’s government has also tried to intervene with the National Housing Mortgage Fund (NHMF) projects. Through the NHMF partnering with GCB Securities, the government set up the Affordable Housing Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) to provide rental homes for public sector workers. The scheme is based on a rent-to-own model where public sector workers can access decent and affordable homes for between 15 to 20 years and pay a residual value to own the property. Lower interest rates (11.9 to 12.5 percent) are offered as part of the scheme, compared with the nominal minimum rate of 24 percent for non-foreign currency or cedi-denominated mortgages.
By and large, the gap between intentions and achievements is still considerably wide.
The Root Causes of Housing Deficit Ghana
Ghana currently has a housing deficit of 2 million units. And to address this deficit, there is a need to deliver a minimum of 170,000 housing units per annum for the next 20 years.
Add to that, The Minister of Works and Housing, Mr. Francis Asenso-Boakye, believes that 60 percent of Ghana’s population would need some form of government assistance to get access to housing. In comparison, 35 percent would not access housing even with government support in terms of subsidy.
Factors Causing Housing Deficit in Ghana
In this section, we analyze the various factors causing the housing deficit in Ghana.
Rural-urban migration is one of the leading causes of the housing deficit in Ghana. According to industry analysis, migration and rapid urbanization have increased the pressure on urban housing as 56.71 percent of Ghana's total population now live in urban areas and cities. That number was 43.9% in 2000, and it isn’t showing any sign of going down. Consequently, the provision of housing has scarcely moved in tandem with demand. You can easily see the effects of that drastic shortage in the growing number of slums and fragile settlements in cities such as Accra, Kumasi, and Sekondi-Takoradi.
Consistent Change of Government
Ghana has enjoyed a considerably peaceful democracy. The 2020 Global Peace Index report ranks Ghana as the most peaceful country in West Africa and third in Africa.
However, when it comes to affordable housing provision, the consistent change of government seems to contribute to the housing deficits in Ghana. Why? Industry analysts believe that governments' inability to continue projects from their predecessors hampers progress. Here’s a case in point: The Government of Ghana in 2005 pursued various housing programs such as the Affordable Housing Project. The project aimed to build over 100,000 units through Private, Public Partnerships (PPP) across the country. However, just after a government transition in 2009, all the projects were abandoned and left to squatters with no concrete plan to complete them.
High Cost of Land and Land Acquisition
You can only build a house if you can afford the land. Lands are essential resources to every country’s economic and social growth. It’s a form of economic good, not just a social good.
In Ghana, customary authorities (i.e., stools, skins, clans, and families) own most land. Together they own about 78% of all lands, the State owns 20%, and the remaining 2% is owned by the state and customary authorities in the form of partnership (split ownership) (Larbi, 2008).
Research shows that there’s been a tremendous increase in the price of land in Ghana, as land is becoming increasingly scarce, in part due to the said issue of rapid urbanization and demographic growth. These pressures have increased competition for land between different groups, such as multiple land users, urban elites, and foreign investors(Cotula, Toulmin & Hesse, 2004).
A survey by Oduro-Kwarteng (2007) indicates the land market in Ghana is being characterized by problems and constraints such as general indiscipline, which have led to land conflicts, litigations, and other adverse effects, particularly on the environment. The research attributes the indiscipline in the land market to the misconduct of land sellers (i.e., Traditional Authorities, family heads, Government agencies on vested lands) and buyers (Estate Developers and Agents) as well as those who play the role of referees to regulate the market (surveyors, planners, lawyers, Land Commission officials, Survey Department, Town & Country Planning Department, Metropolitan/Municipal and District Assemblies, Environmental Protection Agencies, Land Economists).
So here are the challenges facing Ghanaians when acquiring lands:
- Uncertainty over the legal ownership of land
- Ungodly delays in approvals and issues of original land documents
- Corrupt land sales
- Non-conformity with city planning requirements
- Late provision of infrastructure and other services
- Ill-disciplined land agents leading to corruption, distortions, and process inefficiencies
To address these, the government began working on plans to digitize the land registry in 2018.
Enters Tika Mall, the builders market and home for all things construction and building materials
TIKA Mall Ltd sees the stated housing challenge as a market opportunity to build Ghana’s first full-service mall that provides a full range of products and services in construction and building - from foundation laying to property management.
After extensive market research, the team realized the need for a platform and company in Ghana that offers a comprehensive, end-to-end service in construction and building materials.
And by creating this building material and construction equipment mall, they hope to ease the pain and hurdle people go through while building their homes or securing properties in Ghana and beyond.
TIKA Mall Ltd aims to strategically position itself as a one-stop-shop by offering consumers the best possible advice, top-of-the-line products, and world-class services at the intersection of cutting-edge technologies, processes, and procedures in the building and construction sector.
According to the team, TIKA Mall Ltd will be concentrating on only one market segment at this initial stage of the company’s growth milestone. The target market for the business will primarily be composed of residential property development and management and sales of construction equipment and building materials. That is based on their understanding of the entity’s capacity as well as instrumental factors such as profitability, industry growth, the company’s growth potential, and business risk factors.
What does Tika Mall Ltd offer its clients?
With over 300 product lines so far, TIKA Mall Ltd will reach a broader market by targeting both the residential and commercial market segments in the near future.
As an online and offline market, TIKA Mall Ltd offers clients unmatched end-to-end real estate solutions through a full range of products in Building Materials, Construction Equipment, Construction Chemicals, Pipes and Fittings, Walls & Flooring, Home Automation, Sanitary Installments, Electricals & Furniture, Purchase, Rent, and Managing of Properties, Interior & Exterior Decor, Architectural Services, House Painting, and much more.
Visit their head office at Tema Community 25 for a fabulous shopping experience! For more information about their work, kindly contact the team on 020 677 2216.