PAWPAW: 24 Times more Potent than Soursop for Prostate Cancer
…300 times as toxic as leading chemotherapy drug; yet with no side effects.
Several studies have shown that more Ghanaian men are dying due to complications of prostate cancer and prostate enlargement. There is therefore the need to research and find evidence based or scientifically proven alternative remedies for prostate cancer or better still help address the side effects of conventional treatment. Well, I know you have heard of the graviola claims for cancer, but for the first time; you are reading that researches have proven to you that graviola is even inferior to Pawpaw. So if you thought graviola was the most powerful cancer claim; then reversed your books now! This article focuses on the pawpaw and graviola comparison for cancer prevention and treatment claims.
Interestingly, because Paw Paw and graviola are cousins, I also assume that is also the way graviola works. Scientists with the Tepic Institute of Technology (Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic – ITT) in Mexico discovered acetogenins, a compound in the fruit of graviola with incredible chemotherapeutic properties. The researchers with ITT are studying soursop in an effort to find more anti-cancer foods that are readily available in Mexico due to the steadily rising cases of cancer among their population.
Team leader, Montalvo González, explained, “The research seeks to add value to the fruit so the least of it is wasted. We focus on acetogenins compounds because in Mexico, cancer is a disease that is increasing among the population and scientific research shows that the compounds found in this fruit can encapsulate tumors, but this depends on the [ how much is] amount consumed.” (/thetruthaboutcancer.com/soursop-prevent-cancer/)
In an assessment of Graviola, published in the December 2008 issue of the “Journal of Dietary Supplements” by U.S. researchers Lana Dvorkin-Camiel and Julia S. Whelan, multiple in-vitro studies determined that Graviola is effective against various microbial and parasitic agents. Graviola displayed specific effectiveness on parasites Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania panamensis, Nippostrongylus braziliensis, Artemia salina and Trichomonas vaginalis, as well as against the Herpes simplex virus.
As it relates directly to cancer, test-tube and animal research demonstrates that Graviola may be an anti-cancer agent. However, no human clinical trials have been performed as of yet. According to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, Graviola extract proved to be effective against liver cancer and breast cancer cells. Naturopath Leslie Taylor, author of “The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs,” notes that studies show Graviola has an inhibitory effect on enzyme processes in some cancer cell membranes. Graviola only affected cancer cell membranes and not those of healthy cells. This research may lend support to the herb’s traditional use against cancer(http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/02/13/soursop-graviola-cancer-cure-strong-evidnce/)
Since 1976 Dr. McLaughlin, Professor at Purdue University, at the request of National Cancer Institute, lead a team of two other professors in studying the effectiveness of. Pawpaw on tumors. Significant reductions were seen in size of abnormal growths (verified by CT scans, etc.). An informal study of 100 cancer patients showed that Paw Paw was effective in half the cases with very few side effects. However, these are not double-blind studies and no formal clinical trials have yet occurred
Pawpaw black seeds studies:
A 2017 study by Alotaibi et al published in the Journal of Cancer Metastasis revealed that the methanol extracts from black seeds significantly decreased cell proliferation of Prostate cancer cells whereas hexane- and water-extracts have no effect. However, the water-extract from white seeds stimulated Prostate cancer cell proliferation. The black seeds contained significantly more polyphenols than that of white seeds. The data suggest that black seeds from papaya have anticancer effects on Prostate cancer whereas white seeds stimulated prostate cancer proliferation. The anticancer effect of black seeds may be because of their high concentration of polyphenols. The investigators concluded that, the black seeds from papaya may have a potential to reduce growth of prostate cells; however, consumption of white seeds should be avoided as they may stimulate pre-existing prostate cancer.
Papaya fruits also contained a significant amount of lycopene and anticancer activities of papaya have been demonstrated in a number of in vitro studies. Papaya juice and pure lycopene caused cell death in the liver cancer cell line. Until now, Papaya has also been used as a traditional medicine in some cultures for male fertility, suggesting its direct role in male reproductive system. Papaya seeds are natural contraceptive for both man and women. It is traditionally used to affect the fertility in men in a reversible manner.
Interestingly papaya seeds have not known for side effects, as these are common with pharmaceutical contraceptive. It appears that Papaya seeds have activity for male reproductive system; it is, therefore, possible that papaya seeds may have anticancer effect against cancer of prostate gland, a vital organ of male reproductive system. The US researchers hypothesized that papaya seeds can be effective in inhibiting prostate cancer cells proliferation and, therefore, may be a good nutraceutical for preventing and/or treating prostate cancer in men.
Papaya Leaves studies:
Papaya leaves provide a critical role in health. What makes papaya leaves so unique is because they have a milky sap and contain acetogenins, which is essential for preventing and killing the growth of cancer cells. Acetogenins are a group of natural phytochemicals that have anti-tumor activities. Also, researchers have found that papaya leaf extract and its tea have dramatic cancer-fighting properties against a broad range of tumors, backing a belief held in a number of folk traditions.
University of Florida, United States researcher Nam Dang and colleagues in Japan, in a report published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, documented papaya’s anticancer effect against tumors of the cervix, breast, liver, lung and pancreas. The researchers used an extract made from dried papaya leaves, and the effects were stronger when cells received larger doses of papaya leaf tea. Dang and the other scientists showed that papaya leaf extract boosts the production of key signaling molecules called Th1-type cytokines, which help regulate the immune system. This could lead to therapeutic treatments that use the immune system to fight cancers, they said in the recent issue of the journal and released by the University.
Deng said the results are consistent with reports from indigenous populations in Australia and his native Vietnam. The researchers said papaya extract did not have any toxic effects on normal cells, avoiding a common side effect of many cancer treatments. Researchers exposed 10 different types of cancer cell cultures to four strengths of papaya leaf extract and measured the effect after 24 hours. Papaya slowed the growth of tumors in all the cultures. Dang and a colleague have applied to patent the process to distill the papaya extract through the University of Tokyo.
A similar study by Pandey et al 2017 published in the Journal Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy also proved selective anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic attributes of pawpaw leaf extract against prostatic diseases, including Prostate cancer. Down through Australian history the native aboriginal people have talked about papaya leaf tea as a great cancer healing agent. According to Dr. Haider, many people have cured their cancers by drinking papaya leaf tea for extended periods of time. However, while the stories are exciting, the research still has a long way to go.
According to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center website,
“Papaya leaves exhibit antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects in vitro. The leaf extracts contain antibacterial compounds that inhibit the growth of a wide variety of…bacteria. In mice, a powdered suspension of papaya leaves increased thrombocyte count and water extract reduced alcohol-induced stomach damage….Papaya leaf extract showed low toxicity in an animal model, but it has not been studied in humans.” Research reveals that papaya leaves can even put a halt to the growth of breast cancer cells, stop metastasis, while normalizing the cell cycle. Scientists at the University of Illinois are confident that the antioxidant activity is what leads to papaya being effective as an anti-cancer agent.
Mechanism of Action of Paw Paw against Cancer Cells:
In order to understand how paw paw works, it is helpful to be familiar with a little biology on human cells.
Simple Cell Biology and ATP Production
Simply put, cells need energy to live, survive, and multiply--no real surprise. After all, we know that we must give our bodies energy in the form of food in order to live. During the digestion process, the food begins to be broken down and put into a form that eventually can be utilized by the cells in our body. One result of this process is the formation of blood sugar, or glucose. As blood travels throughout the body, the cells absorb the life-sustaining glucose. All cells need it, but some need more than others and are thus "high-users."
The cell has some special molecules on its exterior that transport glucose from the blood into the cell--appropriately called "glucose transporters." However, at this point, the process is not done. The cell must then convert the glucose into usable electrons--in other words, usable energy. There are a couple of different processes that the cells use to accomplish this, but the vast majority of the metabolism (energy conversion) that takes place is through the mitochondria of the cell.
The mitochondria reside on the interior of each cell. Actually, each cell has hundreds or thousands of them. (On the picture above, the mitochondria are the "sausage-shaped" structures on the interior of the cell walls.) As noted earlier, their primary purpose is to take glucose and oxygen and use it to produce the energy that the cell needs. The energy that is produced is called adenosine tryphosphate, or ATP for short.
In general, cancer cells fit the profile of "high users" of ATP. In fact, some studies indicate that they need anywhere from 10-17 times as much ATP as a normal cell in order to survive and multiply. Thus, if the ATP that is produced by the mitochondria of the cancer cells can be somehow controlled or reduced significantly, those cells can be negatively impacted, hopefully making them die off.
Acetogenins--the Substances that Reduce ATP
Research by Dr. Jerry McLaughlin of Purdue University found that the paw paw tree is a source of substances known as acetogenins. (Since the family Latin/scientific name of paw paw is Annonacea, these natural substances are often referred to in the literature as Annonaceous Acetogenins.) It is these acetogenins that he found to drastically reduce the ATP production of the cells' mitochondria.
There are several different acetogenins. They vary from species to species of trees within the "paw paw family", and within other related trees. However, Dr. McLaughlin found that the highest concentrations and most powerful acetogenins were in the Asimina triloba species of the paw paw. Furthermore, he found that there were even differences in the actual geographical location of the trees--noting during his research that some groves of trees were more potent than others.
Important Note: Not surprisingly, some companies have produced products using graviola in both their prostate products and others (a biological cousin of the paw paw) and market them as similar to--or equal to--paw paw itself. However, Dr. McLaughlin showed this to be false. He has written on several occasions in technical papers detailing the big difference chemically and structurally between the acetogenins found in graviola and those found in paw paw. Dr. McLaughlin developed a procedure to standardize extracts from paw paw to contain a certain known amount of acetogenins, and licensed it to a company in Utah. Thus, it is important for anyone contemplating using the paw paw treatment to be sure that a standardized extract from the Asimina triloba tree is obtained--not graviola, since graviola is far less potent due to its chemical structure.
Further research by Dr. McLaughlin found that although the acetogenins are found throughout the paw paw tree, fruit and seeds, the greatest concentration of them is in the twigs of the tree. Also, he found that the acetogenin levels peak during the month of May. Thus, even the time that the paw paw is harvested is drastically important. Thus, someone using the paw paw treatment needs to verify that the manufacturer harvests the twigs at the right time of the year.
The Mechanism of Acetogenins:
When you consume a source of acetogenins, such as a capsule of uniform paw paw extract or a tea form, the blood supply picks them up and transports them throughout the body along with glucose. While a small amount of acetogenins could trigger up in non-cancer cells, the resulting lowering of ATP production is not enough in most of these cells to cause any problems. The huge energy requirement of the cancerous cells tends to "monopolize" most of the acetogenins to those cells. Moreover, when the acetogenins start working on the "high-usage" cancer cells, the resulting drop in ATP energy production is much greater than it would be in most normal cells. Thus, if cancer cells are present in the body, the paw paw tends to affect them, while leaving the normal cells alone.
Unlike chemotherapy, the paw paw works to "starve" the cancer cells instead of poisoning them. Thus, the action is usually slower than chemotherapy. However, the side effects are minimal, as discussed below.
The acetogenin energy-inhibiting properties work in basically four ways:
i. Acetogenins modulate/reduce the production of cellular energy (ATP), thus robbing the cancer cells of the energy it needs to survive. This is the basic process described above, and certainly one of the most important.
ii. Acetogenins help modulate/reduce the growth of blood vessels near the cancerous cells. Since the cancer cells need more ATP, they need more glucose to convert into it. Thus, the body tends to grow new blood vessels to deliver the glucose. Actually, the new blood vessel growth needs ATP itself, so the ATP reduction helps reduce that growth that is necessary for cancer cell survival.
iii. Acetogenins enhance the effectiveness of chemical medical treatments. It is very common to hear that cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy develop a resistance to the chemo itself, thus rendering the treatment to no effect. This is usually called Multiple-Drug Resistance (MDR). This resistance takes place because cancer cells will develop the ability to recognize and reject chemicals that it becomes familiar with. The cells will actually develop a "pumping action" to pump the chemicals back out of the cells before the chemicals have their desired effect. However, this pumping action used to reject the chemicals uses--guess what--ATP. Lowering ATP to these cells reduces their ability to pump out the chemotherapy drugs, thus making the cells susceptible to the chemotherapy treatments again. Several technical articles have been written on the effect of paw paw on MDR cells, some of which can be read on a website called pawpaw research.com.
iv. Acetogenins help reduce duplication of cancer cells. The DNA and RNA are "blueprints" that affect the structure and behavior of cells. However, ATP is an essential part of DNA and RNA division and reproduction. The lowered levels of ATP tend to reduce rapid cell growth.
Using Paw Paw
(Note: If you decide that using paw paw is a course of treatment that you want to do, it is always recommended that you talk about this with your physician. My duty is simply documenting academic information, articles, and other sources to bring to light to the medical community and the general public based on evidence based studies available devoid of subjectivity. Under no conditions should you stop taking conventional treatment without the input/approval of your treating physician.)
If a person is serious about this type of treatment, only a standardized paw paw extract should be used. It is definitely best to purchase the product from a manufacturer that Dr. McLaughlin has personally worked with or one product which has been formulated well here in Ghana using scalar waves to concentrate the product but yet to come to the market. So, normally, a capsule is taken 3-4 times daily with some food. If swallowing is an issue, the capsules can break apart and the contents mixed into something easier to swallow. While not necessary for the action of paw paw to work, many people often use paw paw in conjunction with a beta-glucans, immune stimulating type of product. The beta-glucans are usually taken in between the times when paw paw is taken (between meals).
Another positive thing about paw paw is the lack of side effects. At least one paper noted that paw paw was 300 times as toxic as one leading chemotherapy drug--without the side effects of hair loss and weight loss normally experienced. If the paw paw is taken on an empty stomach, the recipient might experience nausea and/or vomiting. The same is true if a person were to try to overdose on paw paw. (This natural anti-overdose mechanism is yet another positive.) On very rare occasions, a recipient might feel a temporary lowering of energy due to ATP reduction in cells throughout the body. Other than these, there are no side effects known.
No one with Parkinsons Disease should take Paw Paw or graviola unless alkaloid-free preparations are used. There is also a possibility of allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.
Typical Duration of Use.
In general, paw paw should not be used for any sustained, prolonged time unless abnormal cells are present. In the absence of cancer cells, the paw paw will be attracted to other cells in the body that are "high energy usage" cells. They could be anywhere, but the likely candidates are in the digestive and intestinal systems. Because of that, paw paw should not be used as a preventative. It is sometimes used for short durations (less than one month) internally for parasites. Thus, if a person is determined to be cancer-free, they should generally stop taking it no more than a month later. Often, the person may come back and take it for short durations (about a week) each month. However, sustained, prolonged usage is usually ended according to Dr. McLaughlin.
If a preventative is being considered, it is probably wiser to consider things that build and support the immune system, such as a beta-glucans product and a high antioxidant product. There are several good liquid antioxidants available, one of which is mangosteen juice. If you choose to go that route, consider a mangosteen juice that is high in xanthones and without any harmful preservatives. It is these same basic mechanisms that made paw paw effective against lice, parasites, and plant pests.
Specific types of Cancer that have responded to treatment with Paw Paw Twigs extract include:
– Breast Cancer
– Lung Cancer
– Ovarian Cancer
– Prostate Cancer
Eat More Papaya Fruit, the New Superfood
The orange-pink color of the papaya means it’s loaded with cancer-fighting carotenoids. Not only does this fruit have beta carotene, but it also has an abundance of lycopene, which is highly reactive toward free radicals and oxygen. Several epidemiological studies revealed there is a relationship between consumption of lycopene and the risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene is bioavailable and it accumulates in the prostate tissue, preventing cancer.
Another powerful compound found in papaya is called isothiocyanates. During animal experiments, this compound was shown to protect against cancer of the prostate, pancreas, colon, lung, and breast. Isothiocyanates have the same potential to prevent cancer in humans. Researchers discovered the relationship between cell cycle regulation and cell death. Once the cancerous cells die, they typically don’t cause any further issues.
Graviola is Inferior to Paw Paw for the Purpose of Fighting Cancer. The Reason
Researchers from the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; West Africa Postgraduate College of Pharmacists, Lagos, Nigeria; and Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymesingh, Bangladesh has confirmed that sour sop (Annona muricata) has antiproliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. The study was published in the journal Integrative Cancer Therapies.
Some studies on human breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435S) and human immortalized keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) have confirmed the presence of therapeutically active antineoplastic compounds in the n-butanolic leaf extract of A. muricata. The antitumor effects of A. muricata leaves may be due to the presence of acetogenins.
The reported use of graviola as an anti-carcinoma treatment has gone back for decades. While some people have no doubt seen some success with graviola, it is important to note the differences and understand why it is not even close to equivalent with paw paw when used for this purpose.
Tests were done under the direction of Dr. Jerry McLaughlin on two leading graviola products on the market. The first one had a cyto-toxic potency level of about 4% of the potency of paw paw--in other words, paw paw had about 24 times the potency of this product. The second leading graviola product had a potency level of 2% that of paw paw; so paw paw was about 50 times as potent as that product. These results should be unacceptable to those serious about using a product of this nature to fight cancer.
There are two big differences between graviola products and paw paw. First, and probably most important, is the chemistry structure. The chemistry structure of the graviola compounds does not allow it to be as potent as that of the paw paw acetogenins. Second, the manufacturing process of graviola products is inferior in that it is generally consists of grinding powder from leaves, twigs, or other parts of the plant. With this type of much unsophisticated manufacturing process, the amount of active acetogenins will vary widely by batch, and the amount in any selected bottle is unknown to the consumer.
Dr. McLaughlin, while known for his work with paw paw, also did testing of graviola during his long research career. He not only isolated the acetogenin compounds in paw paw that have been seen to fight cancer, but he also found the compounds in graviola and is an expert on the differences. He did two separate research projects on graviola leaves, twigs, and seeds, and isolated 28 acetogenin compounds from that plant.
He has written about these compounds in many papers (over 300 total!) that he published, most of them published in prestigious publications such as the Journal of Natural Products, Heterocycles, Journal of the American Chemistry Society, Phytotherapy Research, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, and others. Several of these papers note the chemical differences between the acetogenins found in the two species, and discuss what makes those in paw paw much more powerful.
The Scientific and Physical Difference
The scientific name of the paw paw used by Dr. McLaughlin in his research is Asimina triloba. It is a North American species of paw paw. Although botanically, the paw paw and graviola are related (both are of the Annonaceae family), they are not the same--any more than an apple and a pear are the same. The scientific name of the graviola is Annona muricata. If one looks at the photographs of the two below, the physical difference is obvious. Paw paw is on the left, and graviola is on the right.
In the 1970's, the National Cancer Institute started funding Dr. Jerry McLaughlin at Purdue University to find botanical substances that had anti-cancer potential. He tested and screened over 3500 species of plants, and found that the acetogenin compounds of the Annonaceae family had the most potential. He--along with 13 of his Ph.D. students and others--worked with the various species of this family, including the paw paw and graviola. They found and isolated over 400 acetogenins in this family, and used some very sophisticated chemical modeling techniques to determine and show the differences. About 50 acetogenins were found in the paw paw, and about 30 in the graviola.
Of more importance than the number of acetogenins found in each plant is the potency of these compounds. Dr. McLaughlin and his students did chemical structure analysis on many of these compounds, and without exception found that those acetogenins with a "double ring" chemical structure were many, many times more powerful than those with only single ring structures. In fact, Dr. McLaughlin went further to isolate "triple" ring structured compounds--only to find that they also were inferior to double ring. The pictures below show 2 different acetogenin chemical structures--both of which are found in paw paw but NOT in graviola. These acetogenins (bullatalicin and bullatacin) have double ring structures. Note the proximity of the two ring structures to each other. All of the acetogenins in graviola do NOT have a double ring structure--only single ring--and this chemical structure causes them to have only a fraction of the potency of paw paw. For reference, it is Bullatacin that was tested by Upjohn Company (now Pfizer) to be 300 times the potency of Taxol, a chemotherapy drug.
The graviola products on the market typically advertise themselves as "freshly ground powder" of twigs, leaves, etc. This type of manufacturing process has two main advantages for the manufacturer--but not the customer. First, it is cheap to produce. Second, it is easy enough that just about anyone can do it.
However, there are problems--and big ones. Dr. McLaughlin found in his research that the level and potency of the acetogenins--even in paw paw itself--varies according to time of year. In fact, it varies drastically! If the twigs are not harvested during the month of May, they are essentially worthless. Also, the acetogenin potency varies even from tree to tree in the same grove! Again...drastically! The problem remains then, how does the manufacturer guarantee that the customer gets the required acetogenin level in each and every capsule of product?
The answer is standardization. A process must be developed or used by the manufacturer to test every single batch of product produced and determine whether or not the potency level is present. Furthermore, the manufacturing process must be able to allow and compensate for different levels of acetogenins in order to get the proper level in each and every capsule. If the product is made (as are the typical graviola products) simply by grinding up the raw ingredients and putting them into capsules, there is not much way to make any adjustments--after all, you can only fit so much material into the capsule, whether or not it has any acetogenins or not. Thus, graviola manufacturers generally do not standardize their products. This process is not easy, since every single batch of material must be tested and adjustments made.
However, the process for that that Dr. McLaughlin developed for the paw paw uses an extraction of the acetogenins from the paw paw twigs. This process allows the manufacturer to adjust the acetogenin level somewhat to be able to guarantee a set amount in each capsule. Thus, the customer is assured of proper potency.
Specific ways in which papaya leaf can potentially help those with cancer:
i. Chemotherapy: Papaya leaves can enhance chemotherapy effectiveness and help with chemotherapy side effects. Immune Function: Papaya leaves contain lots of powerful antioxidants and can boost your immune system. In particular, papaya leaves produce “Th1,” an anti-cancer cytokine.
ii. Platelets: Papaya leaf tea can reverse thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts), a common condition in patients treated for cancer which keeps blood from clotting. Several studies have shown that papaya leaf tea can increase platelet counts, and an international patent has now been filed for its use in improving low platelet counts.
iii. Poor Appetite: Many cancer patients suffer from lack of appetite. Papaya leaf tea improves appetite, bringing vigor and vitality back to the body.
iv. Malnutrition: Papaya leaves contain vitamins A, B, C, D and E, as well as antioxidant flavonoids and carotenes. They also contains 50 or more different amino acids such as threonine, glutamate acid, glycine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, tritophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, aspartate, and digestive enzymes like papain which help digest protein, carbohydrates and fats.
i. Pawpaw is superior to graviola for fighting cancer according to research
ii. 50 acetogenins found in Pawpaw and 30 in graviola
iii. Big difference between Pawpaw and Graviola
iv. Chemical structure of graviola does not allow it to be potent compared to Pawpaw.
v. the manufacturing process of graviola products is inferior in that it is generally consists of grinding powder from leaves, twigs, or other parts of the plant.
vi. Pawpaw is 300 times as toxic as leading chemotherapy drug; yet without side effects.
vii. The compelling evidence in pawpaw is high compared to graviola
Now I have ended my research for you. This is why you need to stay here and read my work; so you can make informed decision before purchasing any natural products on the market. You can call me concerning any information on natural remedy and the way forward before wasting your money on 0541090045/0541234556/0208679076. My office: Dr. Nyarkotey College of Holistic Medicine, Tema Community 7, Post office or RNG Medicine and Prostate Research Lab, Tema , Community 18, opposite My Choice Hotel.
Dr. Raphael Nyarkotey Obu is a research Professor of Prostate Cancer & Holistic Medicine at Da Vinci College of Holistic Medicine, Larnaca City, Cyprus, and Member of the Prostate Cancer Transatlantic Consortium (CaPtc), a firm researching into prostate cancer in the black community. The consortium is led by Professor Odedina of University of Florida. He is also the National President of the Alternative Medical Association of Ghana (AMAG).Dr. Nyarkotey research focuses on prostate cancer in the black race and naturopathic Urology/Oncology.
Disclaimer: "The views/contents expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of Raphael Nyarkotey Obu and do not neccessarily reflect those of Modern Ghana. Modern Ghana will not be responsible or liable for any inaccurate or incorrect statements contained in this article."