War Psychiatry and Stealing-Covet Disorders as War Disorders
§ 1. Introduction
There were periods in human beings' world where laws were not the ruling instruments that governed the lives and practices of men. These periods were characterised with unlawful manners of dealing with men who could be considered as uncivilised and barbaric. In those days, people could manufacture stories that could lead to the confiscation of other human beings' properties or belongings. Innocent people could forfeit their lands, cattle, flock of sheep, and other valuable properties because of the greedy nature of other stronger men in societies. These periods were times when peace was not found among the majority of people living in Europe and elsewhere in the world where the stronger races ruled and decided matters of life and death of the weaker nations.
As a result of these practices that were characterised with injuries and injustices in the world, many people that could be asserted today as genuine in character suffered from being honest and straightforward in their dealings with other men. The groups of people that lived nearby never gave in with the thoughts of shielding the innocent and the weak. In short, individuals could covet and steal the properties of their neighbours without being punished or required to account for their behaviour. Such were the characteristics of the human world that wars could be initiated with the purpose of acquiring or confiscating of anything that one wants from his other neighbours. As these were the practices, they enabled the stronger races to acquire the properties lawfully obtained by the weaker and honest human beings in the world.
If wars were rampant, it was because there was no order, peace, and stability on the earth and everybody could be master so far as this person could manage to conquer those living around. Wars on earth took these forms where the stronger men could become the master of the world and the protector of the weak in some societies. These experiences were strikingly found in the Medieval and Dark Ages Europe, where the Lords and Dukes could have authority over many people just because they had the power and strength to fight and protect these folks from being mobbed or put into slavery by their captors.
§ 2. Definition
The stealing-covet disorders of war or the obsessive need to steal (Kleptomania krig) is defined to be the manner where the strongest men in society, mentally disturbed men, a group of people or race in the world decide to use war in order to confiscate the properties of other people in the society because of their weak statuses or dispositions in the world. These wars mostly took place in the periods where the strength of the person determines his riches or status in the community. The period is well known for its lack of good laws to govern the people. As a result, there was no peace on earth as the strongest or the powerful ruled the world and some of these people became protectors of the less powerful as well, who paid their allegiance to these men as Lords or Masters. It is a disorder that has compelled many countries in these modern times to utilise the strength of their Army to grasp lands, territories, oil fields, etc that did not belong to them originally.
§ 3. Symptoms/Characteristics
The rate at which wars that occurred on earth came about because of this particular disorder has not been emphasised. Certain groups of people through advantage they had had on the earth succeeded in manipulating the inhabitants of the world so that everything that happens in the world should be interpreted or seen from their perspective. Thus a bad thing could be clothed or enshrouded such that it would appear to be good to all that visualise it. Furthermore, the religious people through certain beliefs (Ecclefortis) found appropriate interpretations to issue when wars of these kinds occurred on earth in their quarters, and these transformed the nature of war in that they made them look good in the eyes of their own adherents and the majority of people living in the world.
First of all, the symptoms of stealing-covet war disorders (Kleptomania krig) could be described to reveal themselves by strong adherents of a group of people/ nations to a supernatural power either in the heavens or imaginary one. Individual leaders of the people or figures could then plan the wars to be fought but make sure to ascribe the intention to this powerful being or imaginary being. These persons that become their mouthpiece could be possessed with some spirits (in modern terms psychiatric disorders), an indication that the message coming from them were being issued through the direction of this power. These individuals usually reveal schizophrenic symptoms such as auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, hysterical, frenzy, and confusional states. Some reveal psychotic symptoms such as confusion, disorganisation, and frustration. While some suffer strong paranoid symptoms that would make them disappear to go and live in the desert for fear of being persecuted by the leaders of the people or rival nation. The important thing is that they warn these people or nations that an impending war to such and such a nation is imperative to take the property of the neighbouring nation because this power from above had given sanction that it should be so. When such a war had been fought and accomplished, it is interpreted that their powerful God gave the property to them. The experiences hovering around these stealing-covet disorders wars are such strong that no member of that gang that fought and confiscated the property felt guilty of having done something wrong. It can be therefore asserted that due this manner of engaging in war, the association of guilty feelings is absent. At the same time, no amount of empathy and identification with the disturbed leader is shown, as everything is psychologically explained from religious point of view (ecclefortis)
Secondly, modern nations that through this particular disorder grasped or confiscated others' property always used their cunning manner (“super race myths,” “distinct,” “super gene”) to make the war look like the natives' own request to be there while they gathered their booty. Or they shall engineer troubles themselves that shall allow them to stay in the country while engaging in their plundering of the peoples' properties unknowingly to the poor folks. Later, they would grasp this country and its' land and kill all the people living there in order to inherit the expanse land. Other techniques of manipulation known as “management of disorders” and “caretakers” are carried on to stay longer in the vicinity or war zone. While this is going on, valuable property of the land would be plundered or stolen. They sell their weapons at the same time. The gold and diamond shall become their own properties but not these poor natives. This could be well planned later, some of them being their own planning to instigate suicide bombings to intensify the disturbances in these areas in order to win favours of the natives and further continuous acceptance to remain and operate in these territories or countries.
As mentioned already, the leaders of these nations that engage in such dubious ventures usually suffer from schizophrenia with a well-preserved body. They can be drunkards, depressive patients through alcohol addiction, drug dependent individuals either injected or taken through doctors' prescriptions, or retarded leader patients with violent or bizarre behaviours, hidden Parkinson disease that troubles them with impending death, etc.
§ 4. Case Studies
(a) Antiquity (Babylonians, Persians, Grecian, Roman Empires)
Kleptomania krig was common among these mighty empires that reigned for a long period.
(b) Israelites and other neighbouring states
Most of the lands confiscated by these nations belonged to other nations or people that were weak to defend themselves.
(c) European expeditions in the world
Homo sapiens Albinos confiscated many lands and caused devastation in the whole world.
(d) American and Soviet Empires
Partly to sell their deadly weapons and ideologies and partly to manipulate and lead the world for “recognition” and “frivolous power” purposes, wars were waged and devastation occurred on the different territories of the earth.
§ 5. Analysis and Discussion
Stealing-covet disorders (kleptomania krig) have been the caused of the number of war disorders that had allowed patients to fight and engineer wars all over the earth. They were very common among the primitive antediluvian peoples that lived in the middle belt of the world or the Northern Hemisphere. Part of the reasons while men suffered during these years were that there was no knowledge with regards to normal and abnormal behaviours, therefore human beings could not distinguish between them. These were all classified as normal human beings that could lead mighty empires and become their Kings as well as decide matters affecting people or a group of nations. As these leaders became erratic, frenzied, and showed bizarre behaviours, so also the people they ruled suffered from Norman psychosis that led to automatic response to commit conspiracies against their own wishes.
It was frequently reported among the Israelites and some of the neighbouring tribes that their Kings and prophets suffered from schizophrenic symptoms, such as, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, hysterical, frenzy, and confusional states. A greater majority of these leaders revealed psychotic symptoms such as confusion, disorganisation, self-mutilation, and frustration. While some notable strong men and leaders of these nations suffered strong paranoid symptoms that made them disappear to go and live in the desert for fear of being killed by the leaders of other rival nations. It was these sick men that warned these people or nations to go and steal while making attribution to God's intentions that this impending war was imperative to take the property of these neighbours and be given to God. God was god of “war” and “fire,” for he could be angry just like human beings. When such a war had been fought and success had been achieved, these bad deeds were interpreted that their powerful God punished these innocent children and women for showing hatred to his “chosen people”.
Homo sapiens Albinos had their modern-day leaders that usually suffered from schizophrenia with a well-preserved body. Yet others were vagrant schizophrenics and had bizarre behaviours such as occurred among the Roman Emperors and the Second World War Leaders in Europe. A greater majority were drunkards, depressive patients through alcohol addiction, drug dependent individuals either injected or taken through doctors' prescriptions, or retarded leader patients with violent or bizarre behaviours, hidden Parkinson disease that troubles them with impending death, etc. But these leaders, instead of acknowledging their vulnerable states were hailed as “heroes” that caused devastation on the planet earth. There are some that if they had founded a sect or church on earth, today we would be visualising the blooming with new members or flocking members who could be going about preaching about an ideology concerning people being transplanted into another planet to come in the future.
Psychiatrists have confided in others that many of the War patrons (war fathers, ancestors) that had the intention of employing the principle of “management of disorders” or “caretakers” of ongoing wars with the intention of preventing complications in the war zones, these all have their priorities. There are some that are there to continue their “stealing mission,” yet others are there to enable them sell their weapons or advertise for the purchasing of their weapons. There is no association of guilt here, for the Albinos just like the barbarians, war is a hobby that they commonly dream about or yearn that they occur frequently among people.
§ 6. Concluding remarks
Obsession need to war (kleptomania krig) was common among the people of antediluvian world as well as the antiquity. It has also been experienced in the world during the last two thousand years, as the world emerged into the modern civilisation era. Unfortunately, these wars are continuously being experienced in the world today where the stronger nations believe that they can create wars and then clothe them with false stories to cover up the real intentions.
The world is ripe to not allow or tolerate this nonsense which the Albinos had employed to steal the property of the weaker nations. We should move forward and let war ceases forever and allow it only when barbarians or aliens from another planet are attacking a nation. The war disorder is real, and there is no way we can continue to repress this truth to allow our women, children, the elderly, the handicapped to suffer unnecessarily on this planet.
Ackerknecht, E. H. (1971) Medicine & Ethnology: Selected Essays. (Eds.). Walser, H. H., and
Koelbing, H. M., Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins.
Andersson, C. M., et al. (1986) Schizophrenia in the Family: A Practitioner's Guide to
Psychoeducation and Management. New York: Guildford Press.
Ang, P. C., & Weller, M. P. I., (1984) Koro and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145,
Appiah-Kubi, K. (1981) Man Cures, God Heals: Religion and Medical Practice among the
Akans of Ghana. Totowa, NJ: Allanheld, Osmun & Co., Publishers.
Apter, D. E. (1963) Ghana in Transition. New York: Athenum.
Argyle, M., & Delin, P. (1965) Non-universal laws of socialization. Human Relations, 18:77-
Armah, A. K. (1979) The Healers. London and Ibadan: Heinemann.
Assimeng, M. (1989) Religion and Social Change in West Africa: An Introduction to the
Sociology of Religion. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.
Asuni, T. (1967) Tropical neuropathy and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113,
Asuni, T. (1971) Vagrant psychotics in Abeokuta. Journal of the National Medical
Association, 63, 173-180.
Aubin, H. (1952) L'Homme et La Magie. Bibliothéque Neuro-Psychiatrique de Langue
Francaise. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer et Cie.
Ayim-Aboagye, D. (1993) The Function of Myth in Akan Healing Experience: A Psychological
Inquiry into Two Akan Healing Communities (Diss.) Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Psychologia et Sociologia Religionum 9. Uppsala.
Ayim-Aboagye, D. (1997) The Psychology of Akan Religious Healing. Religionsvetenskaliga
Skrifter nr 36. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University.
Ayim-Aboagye, D. (1997) Using Christian Religious Resources in the Welfare of Prisoners:
The Case of Swedish Prisons. Religionsvetenskaliga Skrifter nr 37. Åbo: Åbo
Ayim-Aboagye, D. (2000) Prison, Punishment and the Church. A Socio-Psychological
Investigation of the Work of Chaplains among the Immigrant Inmates in
Swedish Prisons. Religionspsykologiska Skrifter 8. Uppsala: Uppsala
Ayim-Aboagye, D. (nd) The Psychiatric Care in West African Mental Hospitals: The Impact
of Religion and Tradition on the Care of Mental Patients (A book in progress)
Baucom, D. H., et al. (1998) Empirically supported couple and family interventions for adult
mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 53-
Bebbington, P., & Kuipers L. (1993) Social causation of schizophrenia. In Bhugra, D., &
Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific
Publications. Pp. 82-98.
Beiser, M. et al. (1972) Assessing psychiatric disorder among the Serer of Senegal. Journal of
nervous and Mental Diseases, 154, 141-151.
Bell, C. (1992) Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bellack, A. S., et al. (2000) Effects of behavioural family management on family
communication and patient outcomes in schizophrenia. British Journal of
Psychiatry, 177: 434-439.
Benedict, P. K., and Jacks, I. (1954) Mental Illness in Primitive Societies, 17: 377-389.
Bennett, D. et al. (2004) Anorexia nervosa among female secondary school students in
Ghana. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185:312-317.
Bento-vim, D. I. (1985) DSM III in Botswana a field trial in a developing country. American
Journal of Psychiatry, 142: 342-345.
Bergstrand, G. (1982) Att Arbeta med Livsåskådningsfrågor i Psykoterapi. Stencil.
Stockholm: S:t Lukasstiftelsen.
Bergstrand, G. (1988) Tro och Misstro. Stockholm: Natur och Kurtur.
Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (1993) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific
Bhugra, D., & Buchanan, A. (1993) Attitudes towards mental illness. In Bhugra, D., & Leff,
L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific
Publications. Pp. 385-399.
Bhugra, D., & Gregoire, A. (1993) Social factors in the genesis and management of postnatal
psychiatric disorders. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social
Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp. 424-436.
Bhugra, D. (1993) Influence of culture on presentation and management of patients. . In
Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Bhugra, D. (1993) Unemployment, poverty and homelessness. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L.
(eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific
Publications. Pp. 355-382.
Berrios, G. E., & Morley, S. J. (1984) Koro-like symptom in a non-Chinese subject. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 331-334.
Boateng, A. A. (1966) A Geography of Ghana. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Boisen, A. T. (1960) Out of the Depths. New York: Harper.
Bondestam, S. et al. (1990) The prevalence and treatment of mental disorders and epilepsy in
Zanzibar. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81: 327-331.
Berger, P., and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Harper Bk.
Bourgignon, E. (1975) Possession and trance in cross-cultural studies of mental health. In
Culture-Bound Syndromes, Ethnopsychiatry, and Alternative Therapies. Lebra,
W. P. (Ed.) Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Bradford, D. (1984) The Experience of God. Phenomenology and Schizophrenia. New York:
Free University Press.
Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1956) Studies in Hysteria. London: Hogarth Press.
Brown, G. W. et al. (1972) Influence of the family life on the course of schizophrenic
disorders: a replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241-258.
Brugha, T. S. (1993) Social support Networks. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of
Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp. 502-516.
Buckley, A. D. (1976) The secret- an idea in Yoruba medicinal thought. In Social
Anthropology and Medicine, Louden, J. B. (Ed.) ASA Monograph No. 13.
London: Academic Press.
Bulik, C. M. et al. (2001) Features of sexual childhood sexual abuse and the development of
psychiatric and substance use disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179:444-
Burstein, S. R. (1952) Public health and prevention of disease in primitive communities. The
Advancement of Science, 9: 5.
Buss, A. R. (1978) Causes and reasons in attribution theory a conceptual critique. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology Vol.36, 11:1311-1321.
Byrnes, J. F. (1984) The Psychology of Religion. New York: The Free Press.
Calestro, K. M. (1972) Psychotherapy, faith healing and suggestion. International Journal of
Psychiatry, 10 (2): 83-113.
Carothers, J. C. (1947) A study of mental derangement in Africans, and an attempt to explain its
peculiarities, more especially in relation to the African attitude to life. Journal of
Mental Science, 93: 549-597.
Carpenters, J. C., & Brocknington, I. F. (1980) A study of mental illness of Asians, West Indians
and Africans living in Manchester. British Journal of Psychiatry, 137: 201-205.
Carpenter, W., and Buchanan, R.W. (1995) Schizophrenia: Introduction and overview. In
Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/VI volume 1, 6th Edition. Kaplan, H. I. &
Sadock, B. J. (eds.) pp. 889-902, Baltimore: William and Wilkins.
Carsters, G. M. (1977) Protective elements in traditional cultures. Journal of Psychosomatic
Research, 21, 307-312.
Castro, R., and Eroza, E. (1998) Research notes on social subjectivity: Individuals' experience of
susto and fallen fontanelle in a rural community in Central Mexico. Culture,
Medicine and Psychiatry, 22: 203-230.
Cobbing, J. (1977) The absent priesthood: Another look at the Rhodesian risings of 1896-1977.
JAH, 18/ 1: 61-84.
Cochrane, R., & Bal, S. S. (1987) Migration and schizophrenia: An examination of five
hypotheses. Social Psychiatry, 22, 181-191.
Cohen, C. I., et al. (2004) Racial differences in paranoid ideation and psychoses in an Older
Urban population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161:864-871.
Conco, W. Z. (1979) The African Bantu traditional practice of medicine some preliminary
observations. In African Therapeutic Systems, (Eds.) Ademuwagun, Z. A. et al.,
Pp. 58-80. Crossroads Press.
Cooper, Z., & Paykel, E. S. (1993) Social factors in the onset and maintenance of depression. In
Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell
Scientific Publications. Pp. 99-121.
Corbeil, J. J. (nd) Bemba Bush Medicines. Moto Moto Museum, Mbala Zambia.
Cox, A. (1993) Social factors in child psychiatric disorder. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.)
Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp.
Creed, F. (1993) Life events. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry.
Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp. 144-161.
Crisp, A. H., et al. (2000) Stigmatisation of people with mental illness. British Journal of
Psychaitry, 177: 4-7.
Cullberg, J. (1984) Dynamisk Psykiatri i Teori och Praktik. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
Dawson, J. (1964) Urbanization and mental health in a West African community, In Kiev, A.
(ed.), Magic, Faith and Healing: Studies in Primitive Psychiatry Today. New
York: Free Press
Dawson, J. (1979) Traditional concepts of mental health in Sierra Leone. In: African Therapeutic
Systems, (Eds.) Ademuwagun et al. Crossroad Press. pp. 3-7.
Day, R. et al. (1987) Stressful life events preceding the acute onset of schizophrenia: a cross
national study from the World Health Organization. Culture, Medicine and
Psychiatry, 11, 123-205.
DeMarinis, V. (1990) Movement as mediator of memory and meaning: An investigation of the
psychological and spiritual function of dance in religious ritual. In: D. Adams (ed.),
Dance as Religious Studies. New York: Crossroads.
DeMarinis, V. (1994) Transitional Objects and Safe Space: A Theoretical and Methodological
Interaction between Psychology of Religion and Ritual Studies. Acta Universitatis
Upsaliensis, Psychologia et Sociologia Religionum 10. Uppsala.
De Reuck, A. V. S. & Porter, R. (Eds.) (1965) Transcultural Psychiatry. London: J. & A.
Devereux, G., (1956) Normal and abnormal: The key problem in psychiatric anthropology. In
Some Uses of Anthropology: Theoretical and Applied. Casagrande, J. B., and
Gladwin, T. (Eds.) pp. 23-48. Washington D.C.: Anthropological Society of
Devereux, G. (1961) Mohave Ethnopsychiatry and Suicide: The Psychiatric Knowledge and
the Psychic Disturbances of an Indian Tribe. Washington: Smithsonian
Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 175, United States Government Printing Office.
Devereux, G., (1963) Primitive psychiatric diagnosis—A general theory of the diagnostic
process, In Gadston, I. (Ed.), Man's Image in Medicine and Anthropology. New
York: New York Academic of Medicine and International Universities Press.
Dhadphale, M. et al. (1983) The frequency of psychiatry disorders among patients attending
semi-urban and rural general out-patients clinics in Kenya. British Journal of
Psychiatry, 142: 379-383.
Dixon, L., et al. (2000) Update on family psychoeducation for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia
Bulletin, 26: 5-20.
Dixon, L. B. & Lehman, A. F. (1995) Family interventions for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia
Bulletin, 21: 631-643.
Eisenberg, L. (1977) Disease and illness. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 9-12.
El-Islam, M. F. (1979) A better outlook for schizophrenics living in extended families. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 135: 343-347.
Elsarrag, M. E. (1968) Psychiatry in the Northern Sudan: a study in comparative psychiatry.
British Journal of Psychiatry, 114: 945-948.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1937) Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. London:
Oxford University Press.
Fabrega, H. (1984) Culture and psychiatric illness: Biomedical and ethnomedical aspects”,
Marsella, In Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy. A. J. and G.
M. White (Eds.) Culture, Illness, and Healing 4. pp. 39-68. D. Boston: Reidel
Fallon, I. R., et al. (1984) Family Care of Schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press.
Fallon, I. R., et al. (1996) Family treatment of schizophrenia, the design and research
application of therapist training model. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice
Research, 5: 45-56.
Farmer, A. E., & Falkowski, W. F. (1985) Margot in the salt: The snake factor and the
treatment of atypical psychosis in West African women. British Journal of
Psychiatry, 146, 446-448.
Field, M. J. (1960) Search for Security: An Ethnopsychiatric Study of Rural Ghana. Evanston,
III: Northwestern University Press.
Field, M. J. (1968) Chronic psychosis in rural Ghana. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 33-
Fisher, R. B. (1998) West African Religious Traditions. Focus on the Akan of Ghana.
Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.
Florsheim, P. (1990) Cross-cultural views of the self in the self in the treatment of mental
illness: Disentangling the curative aspects of myths from the mythic of cure.
Frank, J. D. et al. (Eds.) (1978) Effective Ingredients of Successful Psychotherapy. New York:
Frank, J. D. (1978) Expectation and therapeutic outcome—The placebo effect and the role
induction interview. In Frank, J. D. (Eds.), Effective Ingredients of Successful
Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publsihers.
Freud, S. (1915) The Unconscious. In SE 14.
Freud, S. (1923) The Ego and the Id. In SE 19.
Freud, S. (1950) Totem and Taboo. New York: W. W. Norton.
Freud, S. (1961) The Future of an Illusion. Transl. by J. Strachey. W. W. Norton.
Freud, S. (1923) The Ego and the Id. In SE 19.
Ghana Handbook of Commerce & Industry (1988/1989) Ministry of Trade and Tourism.
Ghana Statistical Service. 2001. 2000 Population Census of Ghana: Preliminary Analysis
Report. GSS, Accra, Ghana.
Giel, R., & Van Luijk, J. N. (1969) Psychiatry morbidity in a small Ethiopian town. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 115:149-162.
Good, C. M. (1987) Ethnomedical Systems in Africa. Patterns of Traditional Medicine in
Rural and Urban Kenya. New York: Guilford Press.
Good, C. M. (1988) Traditional healers and AIDS management in Africa. In Miller, N. And
Rockwell, R. (Eds.) Aids in Africa: The Social Impact. New York: Mellon Press.
Green, E. C. (1994) Aids and STDs in Africa. Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Healing
and Modern Medicine. Boulder: Westview Press.
Gubrium, J. F., & Holstein, J. A. (Eds.) (2002) Handbook of Interview Research. Context and
Method. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Gutmann, B. (1909) Dichten und Denken der Dschagganeger. Leipzig.
Gwassa, G. C. K. (1972) Kinjikitile and the ideology of Maji Maji. pp. 202-217. In Ranger, T.
O. and Kimambo, I. (Eds.) The Historical Study of African Religion. London:
Halford, W. K. (1991) Beyond expressed emotion: behavioural assessment of family
interaction associated with the course of schizophrenia. Behavioral Assessment,
Hallowell, A. I. (1934) Culture and mental disorder. Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, 29, 1-9.
Harding, T. (1973) Psychosis in a rural West African community. Social Psychiatry, 8, 198-
Harley, G. W. (1941) Native African Medicine. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Harpham, T. (1993) Urbanization and mental disorder. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.)
Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp.
Harvey, O. J., Hunt, D. E., & Schroder, H. M. (1961) Conceptual Systems and Personality Organization. New York: Wiley.
Hedberg, I., & Staugård, F. (1989) Traditional Medicine in Botswana. Traditional Medicinal
Plants. Broadhurst, Gaborone: Ipelegeng Publishers.
Helmbrock, H. G., and Weigert A. (1980) Current Studies on Rituals. Perspective for the
Psychology of Religion. Amsterdam: Rodopi. International Series in the
Psychology of Religion
Hill, P. (1993) Social psychiatry of adolescence. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp. 234-248.
Hirsch, S., & Jarman, B. (1993) Changing approaches to determining mental health service
resource needs. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.) Principles of Social Psychiatry.
Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp. 517-527.
Hoehn-Saric, R. (1978) Emotional arousal, attitude change, and psychotherapy, In Effective
Ingredients of successful Psychotherapy. (Eds.) Frank, J. D. Et al. New York:
Holland, A. (1993) Social aspects of mental handicap. In Bhugra, D., & Leff, L. (eds.)
Principles of Social Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pp.
Hollingshead, A. and Redlich, F. (1960) Social Class and Mental Illness. New York:
MacMillan and Co.
Holm, N. G. (1976) Tungotal och andedop. En religionspsykologisk undersökning av
glossolali hos finlandssvenska pingstvänner. Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis.
Psychologia Religionum 5. Uppsala.
Holm, N. G. (1987a) Sundén's role theory and glossolalia. Journal for the Scientific Study of
Religion 26, 3: 383-389.
Holm, N. G. (1987b) Scandinavian Psychology of Religion. Religionsvetenskap liga Skrifter nr
15, Åbo Akademi.
Hood, R. W. (1974) Psychological strength and the report of intense religious experience.
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13: 65-71.
Hsu, F. L. K. (1943) Magic and Science in Western Yunnan. Inst. Pac. Rel., New York.
Hughes, C. (1969) Psychocultural dimensions of social change. In Finney, J. C. (Ed.), Culture,
Mental Health and Poverty. Lexington: University of Kenntucky Press, pp.173-
Maslow, A. (1943) “A Theory of Human Motivation: The Basic Needs.” Psychological Review. Vol. 50, pp. 370-396.
Development / Accra / Ghana / Africa / Modernghana.com