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24.04.2015 Feature Article

The First Afrikan War of National Liberation

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Excerpt: Ambakisye-Okang Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi, Revolution: A People’s Methodology of Regime Change Essays on a Theory of Afrikan Socio-political Economic Liberation with an Exposition on the first Black War of National Liberation: Kushite KMT/Kemet & the Expulsion of the Kushite Kanaanite Hyksos c. 2681-2706 KC [c. 1560-1535 BCE] [Iringa, Tanzania: University of New Timbuktu System SBЗ/Seba Press, 2014]

First Black War of National Liberation Kushite KMT/Kemet & the Expulsion of the Kushite Kanaanite Hyksos c. 2681-2706 KC[1] [c. 1560-1535 BCE]

“The unity of theoretical education and the application of this wealth of knowledge to the practical requirements and demands of our liberation is a difficult challenge. In a freedom struggle such as the one that exists in Africa and America today the unity of thought and action must be the cornerstone of all of us who desire to work for the total emancipation of the black race.” [Mhenga Malcolm X]

National liberation, the self-reliant act by a historically conscious people of freeing themselves from foreign domination, through armed struggle coupled with the reconstruction of their cognitive, spiritual, affective and psychomotor physiological Utamaduni [Kiswahili: Culture] is unambiguously the supreme political-economic exploit born of the collective national Utambuzi [Kiswahili: Consciousness] of a spiritually aware people. As the existing social order is determined by the people and their revolutionary representatives to be illegitimate and against the socio-cultural, political-economic and historically grounded standards of the Wahenga na Wahenguzi [Kiswahili: Ancestors], all methods of non-violent direct political action and participation are deemed as inefficient given that they simply reinforce the existing social order and perpetuate the system of illegitimacy. In this instance the organized people have chosen to openly and violently oppose and combat the foreign, non-native seizure of power and alien occupation on the grounds that it is a flagrant violation and systematic infringement of the Wahenga na Wahenguzi established nationally recognized system of laws of right conduct, which in the case of Afrika are born from the Wahenga na Wahenguzi codification of right action known as MЗ‘T/Maat. From the perspective of the Wahenga na Wahenguzi precepts of the law of MЗ‘T/Maat violent resistance to foreign domination which is a representation of the chaotic principles of ISFT/Isfet is a natural reaction and therefore such an act is accorded a righteous status. In the sacred text, the PRT M HRW/Pert em Heru we read the following: style="margin-left:.5in">“SmЗ‘iw xft nw WSIR/Ausar xnr sbiw hr.f …‘hЗn hr.k sbn hr rn.k…Prw style="margin-left:.5in">m imw hrw dr sbiw m sxm: Dis-eased are the combatants of WSIR/Ausar. I style="margin-left:.5in">have scattered and restrained with zeal the criminal fools, the perpetrators of style="margin-left:.5in">invasion and insurrection for him. I have waged war for you WSIR/Ausar I have style="margin-left:.5in">overthrown the adversary for your name. The outcome for the criminal fools, style="margin-left:.5in">the perpetrators of invasion and insurrection is namely a day of woe, grief and style="margin-left:.5in">mourning. I have overwhelmed, subdued and expelled the criminal fools, the style="margin-left:.5in">perpetrators of invasion and insurrection with power… style="margin-left:.5in"> style="margin-left:.5in">Xft.k r‘w n swЗt sbiw xr ‘‘.f qЗws nhm n R‘ iw.f msw bds n wnn.sn …Bhn style="margin-left:.5in">sbiw: Your opponents condition is a state of mental impoverishment. The defiant fools of invasion and insurrection are violently overthrown in war. His disease has reached the heights of heaven. R‘/Ra has withdrawn and eliminated his ability to start movements of corruption, immorality and criminality. The children of the conveyors of invasion and insurrection, they shall not live…May I drive off style="margin-left:.5in">the fools of invasion and revolt.” [PRT M HRW/Pert em Heru: Book of Coming Forth By Day Chapters 1:9-11, 22; 15:9, 14][2] style="margin-left:.5in">

For a historically conscious, politically and economically aware people the ideology of international and humanitarian law of the invading powers have no meaning given that they are outgrowths of the cultural system of the prevailing regional or global organized power. As it is forever at the forefront of the minds of a socio-historically conscious people that all peoples universalize their ideology of law and utilize it as a justification for courses of action, and furthermore at any given moment in history the international law answers to the culture complex of the most powerful nation. National Liberation is then a movement of the people organized for the purpose of struggling with invading powers intent on domination, colonization and the imposition of a political-economic and ethnic social order supported by religion which reduces the people to a position of subservience and legitimizes said action. The National Liberation movement is then the hostile opposition of the people led by a revolutionary, subversive, dissident, insurrectionist insurgency which continues until the desired objective of the violent removal of the foreign social order and the complete displacement of the alien rulers and their Utamaduni from the land and minds of the people and the restoration of national self-rule according to national cultural methodologies of government is achieved.[3]

In c. 2681 KC [c. 1560 BCE] SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa, the son of SNЗXTNR ЗHMS/Senakhtenre Ahmese and his consort TTIŠRI/ Tetisheri, local rulers within the environs of WЗST/Wa-set, and his ceremonial wife ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I, launched the War of National Liberation to oust the Kushite Kanaanites, who were under the leadership of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, from the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru and out of Kushite KMT/Kemet proper. The beginnings of this phase of the National Liberation Movement occurred with the ascendancy of SNЗXTNR ЗHMS/Senakhtenre Ahmese and his consort TTIŠRI/Tetisheri to the paramountcy of all of Upper KMT/Kemet, a task accomplished most likely by negotiation and when necessary bloody civil conflict. Upon the transition of SNЗXTNR ЗHMS/Senakhtenre Ahmese either from age or more likely the stress and strain from his efforts to unify Upper KMT/Kemet, his wife TTIŠRI/Tetisheri, who was not of the royal blood lines but instead was the child of a grassroots couple, her father being TNNЗ/Tchenna and her mama being NFRW/Neferu, became NSYT MSYT/Nesyt Mesyt [Kush/Kemet: Queen Mother] and a guiding force in the National Liberation Movement. Her son, SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa, and more importantly her daughter, ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I, through whom the new bloodline and royal right to rule would pass, would both, along with ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I’s biological children with her true husband and SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa’s offspring with his true wives, ЗHMS INHЗPI/Ahmese Inhapi, and SITDHWTI/Sitdjehuti, lead a three decade struggle to vanquish the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu [Kush/Kemet: Kushite Kanaanite Hyksos] from the sacred land.

Now at this time Upper KMT/Kemet in its divided, disunified state probably faced fairly regular incursions by the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu, who had become the dominant power in the wake of the chaotic conditions which followed the collapse of PR ‘З/Per-aa XIII [Kush/Kemet: Dynasty 13] and persisted throughout the majority of PR ‘З/Per-aa XVI. With so many claimants, counter-claimants and potential claimants and war of SPЗT/Sepat [Kush/Kemet: Nome] against SPЗT/Sepat, with independent PR ‘З/Per-aa rising up in different city-states as happened in ЗBDW/Abdju c. 2591- 2641 KC [c. 1650-1600 BCE] and with a lack of any type of border security, Upper KMT/Kemet was ripe territory for regular raids for war booty from both the north as well as from Utamaduni Mkubwa ya IW MIRWIWЗ/Iu Miruiwa [Kush/Kemet: High Culture of the Island of Meroe] south.

The ascension of SNЗXTNR ЗHMS/Senakhtenre Ahmese and his success at unifying all of Upper KMT/Kemet drastically changed this situation and the skill of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa at maintaining and expanding the hard won peace, most certainly was viewed by the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu in the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru [Kush/Kemet: Nile Delta] with wary eyes; for a unified Upper KMT/Kemet spelled the end of Kushite Kanaanite domination in the north as it had since the days of the great unifier, PR ‘З/Per-aa N‘R MR/Nar-Mer. It was probably with these political-economic thoughts in mind that the Kushite Kanaanite leader NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi initiated the acts which precipitated the end of Kushite Kanaanite rule in Lower KMT/Kemet. According to the chronicles of the HRSŠTЗ/Herseshta [Kush/Kemet: Teachers Adept in the Sacred Wisdom] the beginnings of the final phase of the National War of Liberation were on this wise: style="margin-left:.5in">“In due course of time, the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru, of Lower KMT/Kemet, i.e., all of the north land was polluted by the contaminating presence of the vile HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu. This circumstance prevailed for there was no PR ‘З/Per-aa that reigned sovereign over the entirety of the ‘Two Lands,’ uniting and guiding the people of TЗ MRY/Ta Meri. The peoples of the Southern lands of Upper KMT/Kemet were united and governed by SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ Prince of WЗST/Wa-set, the great southern city and his consort, ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I; while the peoples of North Land of Lower KMT/Kemet were under the contamination of the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu. style="margin-left:.5in">At this time the leader of the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu was NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, whose hegemony was projected from the city of HWT WRT/Hut Weret; all of the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru made obeisance to him with all of the works of their skilled craftsmen, sending as an acknowledgement of his suzerainty the best of the foodstuffs of the harvest of the Northern lands of TЗ MRY/Ta Meri. style="margin-left:.5in">Now this NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ had designated and established celebrations, rituals and rites for offering sacrifices in commemoration of ST/Set, after the manner as is done in the Temple of R‘/Ra in the sacred city of IWNW/Iunu, the City of the Sun. Furthermore, NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ he had a Temple erected for the commemoration of ST/Set, next to his royal residence, and he and his servants and their courtiers did daily make obeisance to ST/Set in all solemnity. style="margin-left:.5in">As time passed, NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ sought a reason to arouse the wrath and contempt of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ leader and guide of the Southern lands. style="margin-left:.5in">So to this end NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ convened an assembly of his army captains, the governors of the North, and his scribes and after consultation they bade him to send a cryptic message in which he would demand that the hippopotami of the Sacred Lake of WЗST/Wa-set should be permanently silenced for their noise filled the ears of the peoples of the city of HWT WRT/Hut Weret and did not bade that any should sleep. style="margin-left:.5in">It was well known by the wise men of the court of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ that SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ leader of the Southern city WЗST/Wa-set was a devout follower of IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra and walked in the ways of the laws of MЗ‘T/Maat, the sacred precepts of the Wahenga na Wahenguzi. style="margin-left:.5in">Once days had passed in which the message was duly composed and finished by the scribes of the court of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ that he did have it conveyed to SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ leader of the Southern city WЗST/Wa-set. Once the royal herald of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ had arrived in WЗST/Wa-set at the head of an entourage of attendants, servants and guards, he was ushered into the precincts of the royal residence and given and audience with SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health.’ When in the presence of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ one of the court officials did ask, ‘for what reason have you journeyed to WЗST/Wa-set? Why do you desire an audience with SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health?’ style="margin-left:.5in">And the herald replied, ‘I have come on behalf of my sovereign, NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ he it is that has sent me to deliver unto you this message. ‘NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ does demand that the hippopotami of the Sacred Lake of WЗST/Wa-set should be permanently silenced for their noise fills the ears of the peoples of the city of HWT WRT/Hut Weret and do not bade that any should sleep.’ style="margin-left:.5in">Having heard the words of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ from the mouth of his herald and comprehending their import and subtle meaning, SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ did prudently hold his tongue replying not a word either good or bad. style="margin-left:.5in">Then SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ did say, ‘Is this how your master, NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ seeks to know the state of the land and peoples of the Sacred Lake of the hippopotami here in WЗST/Wa-set?’ To which the herald of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ replied to SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ ‘It is for you to determine the cause for why my master has sent this message unto you.’ style="margin-left:.5in">Then SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ bade the herald to repeat the message once more and the herald did again repeat the message and ended saying these are the words that NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ has ordered me to bring to your ears. style="margin-left:.5in">After which time SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ leader of the Southern lands, had t SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ had the herald of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ well cared for, fed the finest foods of the land and had him provisioned with supplies of the best foodstuffs for he and his, guards, servants and attendants on their return journey to the North. style="margin-left:.5in">Then SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ spoke saying publish well to your master all the acceptable things that I have had prepared on your behalf. After this the herald of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ and his retinue of guards, servants and attendants, did set forth on their return journey to the Northern land. style="margin-left:.5in">At this point SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ leader of the southern city of WЗST/Wa-set, sent his attendants, servants and guards to request the presence of his governors, the elders, and all the captains and officials of the hosts of the army and relayed to them the whole of the message of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ which he had communicated to him by the lips of his herald. And the army captains and generals, commanders of the chariot hosts, the HRSŠTЗ/Herseshta of the Temples, the scribes and elders, all were hushed and fell completely quiet, as they contemplated these grave words, for they would not immediately and rashly speak as they were not yet able to provide SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa ‘Life, Prosperity and Health,’ with a response that could adequately give answer to this loathsome, iniquitous and depraved affair engendered by NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, ‘Life, Prosperity and Health!’”[4]

It seems that NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi reigning as the paramount leader of the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru became gravely concerned at the course of events that were transpiring in the south. Following the chaos of PR ‘З/Per-aa XIII-XVI and the ascension to hegemony of the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu, he undoubtedly had designs on unifying the ‘Two Lands’ under his rule. His course of action was perhaps an attempt to arrest the current course of events in the south and to alter the conditions of political-economic life which continued to improve in the Southern lands as a result of the unification strategy of SNЗXTNR ЗHMS/Senakhtenre Ahmese. So perhaps in response to the rising power of WЗST/Wa-set and in an effort to strike while he felt he had the upper hand he devised his strategy. Now the Kushite Kanaanite rulers having access to the archives of the PR R`/Per Ra, in IWNW/Aunu the NIWT M R‘/Niut em Ra were aware of the words of PR ‘З/Per-aa XЗXЗWR SNWSRT/ Khakhaure Senusret III, of PR ‘З/Per-aa XII c. 2363- 2381 KC [c. 1878-1860 BCE] recorded upon a stone border marker, erected most likely after the construction of the line of fortresses at the southern frontier between Upper KMT/Kemet and Lower Kush: style="margin-left:.5in">“The RSYW/Resyu [Kush/Kemet: Southerners] are attentive to spoken words, style="margin-left:.5in">to communicate with them is in their eyes to cease hostilities. Should you style="margin-left:.5in">choose to launch an offensive against them, they will withdraw. Should you style="margin-left:.5in">choose to pull back your forces, they will commence an assault. A people such

as this one does not trust. These are a contemptible, spineless people.”[5]

Though the Border Stela of PR ‘З/Per-aa XЗXЗWR SNWSRT/ Khakhaure Senusret III is specifically directed upon the , RSYW/Resyu [Kush/Kemet: Southern Peoples of Upper and Lower Kush], to the Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu in the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru the RSYW/Resyu would most likely have included all of the ‘original’ peoples of the INT `ЗT N H`PI ITRW/Inet Aat en Hapi Iteru [Kush/Kemet: Nile Valley] and thus RSYW/Resyu would also encompass , ŠM‘YW/Shemayu [Kush/Kemet: Southerners, People of Upper KMT/Kemet]. Meaning then that the Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu would not have trusted the seemingly peaceful posture of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa, knowing full well the potential power that lay behind the preponderance of human resources that a unified Upper KMT/Kemet represented. This then may have been the rationale that lay behind the actions of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi. NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi and his counselors could not have chosen a more appropriate issue to pull the military forces of Upper KMT/Kemet into the battle field before they were sufficiently ready, but also, perhaps unbeknownst them, the issue they chose would not only unify the SPЗT/Sepat ruling houses behind SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa, ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I and WЗST/Wa-set; it would also unify the grassroots as well.

To understand why NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi’s words would be so inflammatory, it is necessary to consider the spiritually symbolic role of the female hippopotami of Upper KMT/Kemet. Now TЗWRT/Taweret, represented as a female hippopotamus, was venerated from time immemorial as a personification of the one Great Mama, who gave birth to the HЗPI ITRW/Hapi Iteru [Kush/Kemet: Nile River] and its B‘HW/Bahu, and thus ensured the fecundity of the soils of the ‘Two Lands,’ its provision of sustenance and its regular revitalization of the nation. Also, in the Pyramid Texts and the PRT M HRW/Pert em Heru, TЗWRT/Taweret was the personification of the ‘Water of Purification,’ i.e., the ‘Waters of Baptism’ through which one was sanctified and reborn into Kuwa Wahenga, and she was additionally the provider of the sweet, nourishing milk of the lands of SXT HTP/Sekhet Hetep; furthermore, IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra, the patron Mhenga of WЗST/Wa-set, was considered to have been born of the pure water of the primordial B‘HW/Bahu [Kush/Kemet: Inundation], and was, therefore the offspring of the waters of the sacred womb of TЗWRT/Taweret. On the other hand, the male hippopotamus symbolically represented the chaos from which creation had emerged; as such it was a representation of the primeval waters of NW/Nu and a symbol of ST/Set whom the Kushite Kanaanites of the North worshipped exclusively. Together the female and male hippopotami represented the dance of life, its everlasting continuous beginning and perpetuation and therefore, the cryptic message of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi and his counselors was in effect, a veiled, execrable declaration filled with the greatest abhorrence demanding that that ceremony which was sacred to IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra, and his descendants of WЗST/Wa-set should be desisted, thereby causing the people to commit sacrilege against NTR ‘З/Netcher-aa, through the person of the PR ‘З/Per-aa. Now in WЗST/Wa-set a part of the ceremony included the hunting and slaying of the male hippopotamus as a representation of ST/Set the usurper and creator of disorder and thus an act of the restoration of order. But this was not only just a demand for the cessation of the hippopotami ritual which was considered an affront to ST/Set, the exclusive God of the Kushite Kanaanites, but also, as the hippopotami symbolically represented the fertility and continued revitalization of the people through the birth of the Beautyful Ones Not Yet Born, it was a horrid and odious ultimatum calling for the complete and total Genocide of the people of the nation, to be interpreted as the Genocide of their independence as a sovereign nation or the biological extermination of the peoples of the land should they refuse.

Judging from the remains of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa it would seem that his response was to strike forth in the War for National Liberation of Upper and Lower KMT/Kemet. Together with his son WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa launched a two pronged assault back by the full united power of Upper KMT/Kemet against the dazed and bewildered Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu. In one of the early military clashes, it appears that the forces under the command of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa may have been routed after many early advances. It further appears that either SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa died in combat or was executed after being captured by the military forces of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi. With the remaining forces still in the field under the command of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, the great NSYT/Nesyt ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I, took the reins of state and assumed leadership of the nation. For in the atmosphere following the fall of the courageous SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa in the War of National Liberation fractures began to show amongst the nobility. Of the mighty acts of ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I it is written upon a Stela erected in the IPT ISWT/Ipet Isut of WЗST/Wa-set by NBPHTIR AMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I that:

[‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I] she it was who maintained the traditional sacraments

and ceremonies [commemorating the Wahenga na Wahenguzi] and with

discretion administered and protected KMT/Kemet. She has provided for

the needs of the warriors of KMT/Kemet and kept watch over them. They

who had been captured, but had escaped, she sought them out and

returned them; even more, she it is who recovered the absconders from

the national army. She has made Upper KMT/Kemet tranquil be driving out

the insurrectionists.”[6]

For her actions in provisioning and supervising the army of WЗST/Wa-set, securing captives, returning military deserters and masterfully quelling insurrectionary forces that arose perhaps in the wake of the death of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa, ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I was three times awarded the highest military award for valor on the field of battle in defense of the nation of Kushite KMT/Kemet, the Order of the , ‘FF/Afef [Kush/Kemet: Golden Jewelry in the form of a stylized Fly].

WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese returned to WЗST/Wa-set and with the aid of ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I was firmly established upon the throne of Upper KMT/Kemet. At which point we have evidence that the following took place as WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese began to consider the political-economic position of the entire land of KMT/Kemet from the coasts of the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru to the fortified borders with Lower Kush: style="margin-left:.5in">The Liberation Chronicles of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese recorded on the first of two Stone Stela erected in the Temple of

IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra in the Holy City of WЗST/Wa-set c. 2691 KC

[c. 1550 BCE]:
“Year three of the sovereign HRW/Heru, he who is manifest upon the throne

of the TЗWI/Taui [Kush/Kemet: The Two Ladies], the twin majestic pillars;

HRT NBW/Heret Nebu [Kush/Kemet: The Golden Heru], he who makes

tranquil the Two Lands, the King of Upper and Lower KMT/Kemet SЗ R‘

WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, receiving life, venerated by

IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra, sovereign of the Thrones of the Two Lands, the image of

R‘/Ra, everlasting!
style="margin-left:.5in">A powerful King, springing from the soil of WЗST/Wa-set, WЗDXPRR/ Wadjkheperre receiving life everlasting, a King of MЗ‘T/Maat!

R‘/Ra has anointed him King and R‘/Ra has sanctioned and endorsed for

WЗDXPRR/Wadjkheperre triumph in the righteousness of MЗ‘T/Maat!

The righteous King in the royal residence at WЗST/Wa-set did assemble the

Council of Elders, who were his administrative staff and said unto them, ‘Help

me to understand the reason for the power of the kingdom. Why does it

exist? There is a King in HWT WRT/Hut Weret [Kush/Kemet: Avaris] and style="margin-left:.5in">another in Upper Kush and I am here in between them, an Black Asiatic and an Upper Kushite. The two have carved out a piece of KMT/Kemet separating portions

of my land from me.
style="margin-left:.5in">It is not possible to safely travel through the land to MN NFR/Men Nefer, even though it is within the land and waters of KMT/Kemet. The Black Asiatic has even taken XMNW/Khemenu [Kush/Kemet: Hermopolis]. None is able to establish themselves while they are pillaged and devastated by the raids of the Black Asiatics. I shall struggle in war with the Black Asiatic, in close quarters combat, that I may disembowel him. It is my intention to liberate KMT/Kemet and to bring suffering and affliction upon the remnant of the Black Asiatics.’

The Council of Elders considered the words of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre

Kamese, their import and implications and then responded saying, ‘To the

borders of KIS/Kis [Kush/Kemet: Cusae] the land and waters are controlled

by the Asiatics and all the land speaks of one accord on the matter. As for

us we are prospering well in our domains here in Upper KMT/Kemet:

ЗBW/Abu [Kush/Kemet: Elephantine Island] is prosperous and secure and

we have the allegiance of all the peoples of the north as far as KIS/Kis.

There the unencumbered land is ploughed, fertilized, planted and harvested for us,

and we feed our livestock in the marshlands of the north, all the while feed is

sent to us for our pigs. Our herds have not been seized, and eaten.

NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi has control of the IDHW N HPI

ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru. We have Upper KMT/Kemet. This profitable

state of affairs, we should upset only if the Black Asiatic moves in opposition to us,

only then should we be hostile to them.’
The words of the Council of Elders vexed WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre

Kamese deeply, and he responded in this manner, ‘Your suggestions are

contrary to my thoughts. They that divide my land with me shall at no

point ever honor and show deference to me, not NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb

Khepesh Re Ipepi nor the Black Asiatics who are with him. Therefore, I shall

lead a naval expedition north to make war upon the Black Asiatics and we shall

be triumphant. If the Black Asiatic has the intention of living at peace in the

land of my Wahenga, then I shall expel him and his people causing much

woe among them and freeing the entire land of KMT/Kemet.

The extremely powerful and confident sovereign in WЗST/Wa-set, WЗDXPRR

QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, the mighty guardian of KMT/Kemet: ‘I

journeyed to the north land, for I was powerful enough to wage war on the

Asiatics and I had been inspired by the words of the Oracle of IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra,

the righteous one of MЗ‘T/Maat, and was directed to go forth triumphantly. The

valorous, audacious and indomitable warriors of my army went before me in the

power of the fire of R‘/Ra. The skilled valorous archers of the Kushites of MDJЗY/

Medjay excellent marksmen all, were at the prow of our naval vessels, their

purpose was to locate the Asiatics in their fortifications near the landing points

and to force them back from their strategic positions. East and West of the

landing there was much to eat, and our hosts searched about everywhere for

victuals and supplies.
I took with me a well-equipped, experienced contingent of the MDJЗY/Medjay style="margin-left:.5in">archers during daytime reconnaissance-in-force in the vicinity of the city of NFRWSI/Nefrusi. We came upon the collaborator, TTI/Teti, the son of PPI/Pepi style="margin-left:.5in">in the city of NFRWSI/Nefrusi. We kept him bottled up in NFRWSI/Nefrusi, preventing its evacuation while additional forces were deployed

to drive back reinforcements from the Asiatics who had endured in KMT/Kemet.

It was TTI/Teti, the son of PPI/Pepi who had turned NFRWSI/Nefrusi into a safe

haven for the Asiatics.
style="margin-left:.5in">Following the success of these first forays, I rested contentedly that night on my flag-ship. At the first light of the day, I commenced the attack upon TTI/Teti, the son of PPI/Pepi and NFRWSI/Nefrusi with the speed and daring of a falcon. By the time of the morning meal, I launched the final assault. I dismantled the walls of

the city and slaughtered many of its inhabitants, and finally I had his spouse style="margin-left:.5in">brought to me in subservience at my camp by my boat on the banks of the river. The warriors of my army divided the war booty as lions divide the carcass of their prey, taking some as bond servants, livestock, milk, the fattest parts of the slaughtered meat, and honey while dividing amongst themselves the property of

the citizens, in all merriment.
The entire vicinity of NFRWSI/Nefrusi all of its villages quickly submitted to my

authority. It was not long before other cities were enveloped and reduced

to submission. Some cities and there surrounding villages were evacuated,

all people having fled inside the city walls those reconnoitering in the valley they

discontinued their efforts, and the people of the valley they abandoned their

property.
style="margin-left:.5in">The Liberation Chronicles of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese recorded on the second of two Stone Stela erected in the Temple of

IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra in the Holy City of WЗST/Wa-set c. 2691 KC

[c. 1550 BCE]:
“…Reports of your defeat reached your city: though your army is in the

field yet they retreat in the face of my warriors, your area of control is

greatly reduced; your futility as an effective leader has made me supreme

to the point that you must request of me the space where you will be

slain. Turn to your rear, even there my forces place you in peril. The

women of HWT WRT/Hut Weret will not give birth, their hearts shall fail

them, when they hear the thunderous sound of my armies.

Next, I arrived at PR DDQN/Per-Djedken, in joyous spirits, so that

through anticipation of death, I would cause NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh

Re Ipepi to experience anxiety, that prince of Kanaan who is of delicate

Arms, who devises might plans which never come to fruition. I then put

in at the southern city of YNYT/Yenyet and greeted the people who were

loyal to me. I then organized the liberation armada which was well

equipped. I arranged the ships in a line and placed my ship in the lead,

laying in the course with my standards flying above as a falcon, with my

golden flag-ship blazoning the way like a divinity in the forefront. I had

the troop transport ship moored at a suitable place near cultivated fields

with the armada laid in behind it. It was a scene like the sparrow-hawk

that pulls up plants near the plains of HWT WRT/Hut Weret.

I did see the women of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi on the roof

of his palace, and looking out of their windows, they were not moved as

they looked upon me, through the holes in the walls like small animals

and saying, ‘He is agile.’
Consider that I have arrived as a man of great achievements! All that is

left of the land is in my control, and my actions are completed

successfully. With the everlasting IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra as witness, you

will not safely leave the confines of your city, to step upon the

surrounding fields even should I leave, you shall not do so. Are you

agitated you odious Asiatic. See how I consume the wine produced by

my captive Asiatics, from the produce of the land planted by you. I have

destroyed your places of rest, harvested your trees, thrust your women

into my ships. I have taken your prized horses and I have filled the holds

of the ships of my armada with gold, lapis lazuli, silver, turquoise,

innumerable bronze axes, moringa oil, incense, meat, honey, willow,

box-wood…all the best of the products of Kanaan. I have taken all of it

and caused HWT WRT/Hut Weret to be impoverished.
The Asiatic is destroyed! Are you agitated you odious Asiatic? You who

were once sovereign from XMNW/Khemenu to PI HT HRW/Pi-Het Heru.

And HWT WRT/Hut Weret I left it desolate with no citizens, their cities

And homes, I put to the flames until nothing was left but heaps of ruin.

I , all this I did as repayment for the devastation they caused in

KMT/Kemet. All who had collaborated with the Asiatics had betrayed

KMT/Kemet, their Mother.
During this time I took captive a royal courier from HWT WRT/Hut Weret

as he journeyed south to Kush with a written message, on it. I found

the writing of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi, the sovereign of

HWT WRT/Hut Weret and the message read, ‘SЗ R‘/Sa Ra, NB XPŠ R

IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi does greet you the ruler of Kush. Why

have you not informed me of your ascension? Have you seen what

KMT/Kemet has done? The sovereign WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre

Kamese, the powerful is dispossessing me of the IDHW N HPI

ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru. I have not done anything to him that

resembles his acts towards me. He has devastated the Two Lands

and caused much woe, both to my land and yours; he has laid them

waste. Quickly venture forth into the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en

Hapi Iteru. Do not be cautious. He is here now. No one will prevent

your march. I will occupy him until your arrival. Together we shall

partition the cities of KMT/Kemet and XNT HN NFR/Khent-Hen-Nefer

[Kush/Kemet: Lower Kush] shall rejoice.’

WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, the powerful one who brings

Retribution for injustice: ‘I immediately took control of the northern

Deserts and the southern lands and maintained naval superiority upon the

River and there was then no passage for the Kushites. I maintained a

tight control on the army.
My focus is never distracted from what causes me concern. NB XPŠ R

IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi was in awe of me as I journeyed north upon

the river. We had not yet engaged in combat this was even before he saw

my armies. At the sight of me he begged help from Kush. However, I

interrupted his plea and never did it see Kush. I had it returned to NB XPŠ

R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi near the city of ЗTFIH/Atfih. My triumph left

him in shock, his body was in pain as his courtier described what I had

achieved at HЗRDЗI/Hardai [Kush/Kemet: Cynopolis] a city that formerly

was in the domain of NB XPŠ R IPPI/Neb Khepesh Re Ipepi. I sent my

strongest contingent to DSDS/Djesdjes and I went to SЗK/Sako. Thus no

enemy force could threaten my rear. Then in peace I marched south

crushing all of the enemy I encountered.
This trip south was for WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese, Life,

Prosperity and Health, joyous with his triumphant army in the lead.

There were no deaths or injuries, no internal conflicts, no woe. The

fleet was docked in the homeland during the season of ЗXT/Akhet. style="margin-left:.5in">All were happy, food was plenteous the banks of the river were decked in celebration, WЗST/Wa-set was in festival, the citizens celebrated my

return, none was sad. To IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra were burned incense in

his Temple where it is taught that one should receive the good, even

as he bestows the sword on the son of IMWN R‘/Amun-Ra, Life,

Prosperity and Health, the King WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre

Kamese SЗ R‘/Sa Ra, the powerful, who unified the south and drove

the Asiatic from the north, who did take possession of the land by force, style="margin-left:.5in">who is given life, endurance, supremacy and joy with this K‘/Ka like R‘/Ra everlasting. style="margin-left:.5in">

WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese directed the SPЗT/Sepat leader,

the official of the personal affairs of the Great House, the Chief official of

the land, the military leader, the superintendent of messengers, the style="margin-left:.5in">Keeper of the Royal Seal, WSR NSI/User Neshi, all the acts of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese accomplished in war have them inscribed

upon a Stela, and have it erected in IPT ISWT/Ipet Isut [Kush/Kemet:

The Most Select of Places, Karnak Temple Complex] in WЗST/Wa-set for

posterity. Then WSR NSI/User Neshi responded to the King: ‘I shall

complete all that you have said to your contentment.’[7] style="margin-left:.5in">

WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese assumed administrative leadership of KMT/Kemet reigning for approximately half a decade and continued the War of Liberation. As we see from his inscriptions he had to overcome first the complacency of the elites of Upper KMT/Kemet who were well placed in the SPЗTЗ/Sepats of Upper KMT/Kemet and in the institutions of the HWT PR ‘NX/Hwt-Per-Ankh. Once having overcome this opposition he led successful campaigns in the north victoriously crushing the Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu in battle after battle and also preventing an alliance between the Kushite Kanaanites and the nations of Lower Kush. Having subdued all of the territories formerly controlled by the Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu in the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru and leaving a sufficiently strong military force to lay siege to and keep the Kushite Kanaanites boxed up in HWT WRT/Hut Weret, WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese turned his full attention to the south and waged two campaigns against Utamaduni Mkubwa ya IW MIRWIWЗ/Iu Miruiwa with the intention of securing the Kushite KMT/Kemet borders at the old line of fortresses originally built by PR ‘З/Per-aa XЗXЗWR SNWSRT/ Khakhaure Senusret III. It is perhaps during the second campaign against the Kushites of Utamaduni Mkubwa ya IW MIRWIWЗ/Iu Miruiwa that WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese fell in battle ending his short but highly substantial and significant reign. At this point once again ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I stepped to the fore to hold the nation together once more rallying the troops and probably engaging in successful and victorious combat in the south as well as the north. In addition she assumed the leadership of the nation as the next PR ‘З/Per-aa, NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I was still in his minority perhaps being between seven and twelve years of age when first SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa and then WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese transitioned to Kuwa Wahenga leading the War of Liberation being waged against the Kushite Kanaanite HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu. This is quite possibly the second time that ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I stepped to the forefront in the War of Liberation the first being upon the transition of SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa. This time however her regency would be longer and would entail not just leading the home forces and administering the affairs of state in the manner of Mhenga ЗST/Auset but instead would require her presence and military skills at the front in the north in the siege of HWT WRT/Hut Weret and in the border skirmishes against the confederated nations of Lower Kush in the south. She undoubtedly prevented reinforcements from reaching HWT WRT/Hut Weret from Kushite Kanaan and solidified the logistics which kept the northern siege forces well supplied while also dealing with stragglers from the defeated Kushite Kanaanite forces still in the field. Additionally, she would have begun the reorganization of the administrative structure of the liberated areas in the greater northern theatre of military operations to begin to reintegrate them into the southern center and to dislodge any misguided citizens of KMT/Kemet who still retained an irrational loyalty to the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu. As she had previously, she undoubtedly had to deal with insurrectionists elements that would have seen the transition of WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese as a golden opportunity to break away from the unified state and would have possibly sought opportunities to intrigue with the embattled Kushite Kanaanites in the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru. The tasks before ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I were truly dauntless and she completed them with dexterity and skill based in the acquired knowledge of her Wahenga na Wahenguzi.

When NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I came of age he took as his ceremonial sister-wife ЗHMS NFRTЗRI/Ahmose-Nefertari and thus established his traditional legitimacy to the throne. He also chose two true wives ЗHMS SITKЗMS/Ahmose-Sitkamose, ЗHMS HNWTTЗMHW/Ahmose-Henuttamehu with whom he produced many children. Upon his ascension NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I having been groomed by ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I took command of the military forces of Upper KMT/Kemet and commenced the final phase of the conquest of IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru and of Kushite Kanaan the stronghold of Kushite Kanaanite power. With WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese having reduced the Kushite Kanaanite forces sphere of influence to the environs of HWT WRT/Hut Weret and with ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I having successfully maintained this military policy, NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I led the rejuvenated southern military forces in the liberation of the sacred city IWNW/Aunu the NIWT M R‘/Niut em Ra and after paying respects in the sacred shrines of the PR ‘NX/Per.Ankh of R‘/Ra, he continued on and conquered the strategic frontier fortress city of TЗRW/Tcharu, which protected the main route into Kushite Kanaan that was known by the name of the , WЗWT HR/Wawet Her [Kush/Kemet: The Way of Heru]. Next, we learn from one Mhenga ‘HMS/Ahmes son of his mother, ‘B‘N‘/Abana who served as a naval officer under NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I the rest of the Liberation Chronicles:

IMY R‘H‘W/Imy Ra Hau [Kush/Kemet: Commander of the Fleet], ‘HMS/Ahmes

son of ‘B‘N‘/Abana, victorious and he says, ‘I shall speak to you, my people;

I shall relate to you all the good that came upon me. I was honored with

The Gold of Valor before the nation on seven occasions. I was given captives

for servants and much land. The name of the valorous who accomplishes much

shall endure forever.
His words are, ‘I was born in NXB/Nekheb and my father served his majesty the

King of Upper and Lower KMT/Kemet SQNRЗ DHWTY ‘З/Seqenera Djehuty-aa,

victorious. My father’s name was B‘B‘/Baba son of R‘YNT/Rayenet. I became

a naval officer after him serving on the naval vessel SMЗ/Sma [Kush/Kemet:

Wild Bull] under his majesty under NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I,

victorious, at this time I was a young man and had not chosen a wife and

founded a house. After I had established a house, I did serve in the

northern liberation fleet due to my boldness. I also served on land in the

train of his majesty’s chariot.
At the Battle of HWT WRT/Hut Weret I was dauntless in the land

engagement in the sight of the King: at which point I was given command

of the ship XЗMMNNFR/Khamemennefer.
I then fought in the P‘DDKW/Pa-Djedeku canal near HWT WRT/Hut Weret

in close quarters combat and did take the hand of my opponent and had it

accounted by the royal scribe, for which his majesty awarded me the ‘Gold

of Valor.’
When the fight renewed in HWT WRT/Hut Weret, I again engaged the enemy

in close quarters and did take his hand to be accounted and his majesty

awarded me the ‘Gold of Valor.’
When his majesty took HWT WRT/Hut Weret, I did capture three prisoners,

One man and two women and the king did give them to me as servants.

His majesty laid siege to Š‘R‘H‘N‘/Sharahana for six years then the city

fell. I captured two women and took one hand. His majesty gave me the

‘Gold of Valor’ and the prisoners as servants.

Following the Kings victory over the MNTYW STT/Mentyu Setchet, he traveled

south to XNT HN NFR/Khent-Hen-Nefer to crush the Kushites, and great was the

carnage wrought by the King. At the Battle of XNT HN NFR/Khent-Hen-Nefer I

took prisoner two men and gave the royal accountant three hands. His majesty

awarded me the ‘Gold of Valor’ and two women servants. Then the King

returned to Upper KMT/Kemet in great spirits and triumphant for he had defeated

the Asiatics and the Lower Kushites.
From the south ‘‘T‘/Aata came leading a new threat, and soon his defeat was

assured; he was crushed by the southern spirits and the King met him at

TYNTT‘‘MW/Tyneteta-Amu and captured him alive and all his people with him.

From this engagement I captured Kushite archers when their ship was taken. His

Majesty bestowed upon me five servants and a large estate in NXB/Nekheb. He style="margin-left:.5in">did so for all the crews of the naval fleet. Next, did the fallen TTY‘N/Tetyan make rebellion and the King decimated them in combat and gave me five servants and much land more in NXB/Nekheb.”[8]

It seems that following the capture of the strategic military fortress of TЗRW/Tcharu and the cutting off of all supplies to the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu now under the leadership of HQ3 X3SWT X3MWDI/Heka Khasut Khamudi that NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I laid siege to the capital of the Kushite Kanaanites, HWT WRT/Hut Weret, and after several bloody battles occurring within three major assaults took the city. He then followed up this successful campaign by pursuing the retreating Kushite Kanaanites to the fortress in contemporary Gaza, the city of Š‘R‘H‘N‘/Sharahana and laying siege to that city for nearly a decade before it fell to him, he put the city to the flames and imprisoned the survivors. During the six year siege of Š‘R‘H‘N‘/Sharahana it is likely that the Kushite Kanaanites had to resort to extreme measures similar to those recorded by the Kushite Hebrews, concerning another siege a few centuries later in the city of Yerusalem, where the inhabitants resorted to cannibalism.[9]

During the military liberation campaigns at HWT WRT/Hut Weret and Š‘R‘H‘N‘/Sharahana the Lower Kushites under the command of ‘‘T‘/Aata took advantage of the preoccupation of NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I with the war against the HKЗW NW XЗSTYW/Hekau nu Khastyu and launched an invasion from XNT HN NFR/Khent-Hen-Nefer into Upper KMT/Kemet. NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I returned there to provide additional military aid to the forces in the south which more than likely were under the superb command of the brilliant MWT N NSW/Mut en Nesu [Kush/Kemet: Mother of the King] ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I and ЗHMS NFRTЗRI/Ahmose-Nefertari. Following the successful campaign against the Utamaduni Mkubwa ya IW MIRWIWЗ/Iu Miruiwa invasion forces in Upper KMT/Kemet NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I returned to the north and completed the conquest of the IDHW N HPI ITRW/Iedjehu en Hapi Iteru and then pursued the Kushite Kanaanites into Kanaan proper. From his victory at Š‘R‘H‘N‘/Sharahana we know from Mhenga ЗHMS PN NXBT/Ahmes Pen Nekhbet, the , SDЗWTY BITY/Sedawety Bity [Kush/Kemet: Keeper of the Royal Seal] and , IMY R XTMT/Imy Re Khetemet [Kush/Kemet: Royal Treasurer] that NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire I continued on to conquer the Kushite Kanaanite city of D‘HY/Djahy located in contemporary Syria and perhaps on to the PHR WR/Pekyaher Wer. Having secured his northern border and extended Kushite KMT/Kemet political-economic authority to the PHR WR/Pekyaher Wer and maybe beyond, NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I then turned the full force of the renewed military might of the nation to the south and began to campaign against Kushite KMT/Kemet’s former political-economic sovereigns of XNT HN NFR/Khent-Hen-Nefer in Lower Kush and successfully secured the southern border regaining the old fortresses established by PR ‘З/Per-aa XЗXЗWR SNWSRT/ Khakhaure Senusret III. At this moment internal dissent against the ascendancy of WЗST/Wa-set broke out into open rebellion against NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I in Upper KMT/Kemet led by TTY‘N/Tetyan. NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I led the Upper KMT/Kemet forces loyal to WЗST/Wa-set and crushed the insurrection before it could spread and rip the newly unified nation asunder. NBPHTIR ЗHMS/Nebpehtire Ahmese I, then, with NSYT/Nesyt [Kush/Kemet: Queen] ЗHMS NFRTЗRI/Ahmose-Nefertari and MWT N NSW/Mut en Nesu [Kush/Kemet: Mother of the King] ‘ЗHTP/Aahotep I reorganized the administrative apparatus of the nation restructuring the bureaucracy of both Lower and Upper KMT/Kemet to better integrate the north back into the nation and to better maintain control of the state so as to minimize opportunities for internal insurrection. In addition, they reestablished direct trade relations with international ports in places such as Kushite Minoa and to commemorate their acts engaged in the tradition of impressive, large-scale awe-inspiring PR ‘NX/Per.Ankh and Pyramid construction setting a precedent for the new  , PR ‘З/Per-aa XVIII [18th Dynasty of KMT/Kemet], which they founded.

Author Bio
Ambakisye-Okang Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi, Ph.D. is a citizen of the United States of America and expatriate resident of the United Republic of Tanzania. Dr. Dukuzumurenyi is a graduate of Grambling State University, in Grambling, Louisiana, USA with a Bachelors of Arts in History and Masters of Public Administration in Public Administration with emphasis in Health Service Administration and of Southern University A & M College Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA with an earned Doctorate of Philosophy in Public Policy Analysis from the Nelson Mandela School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs. Dr. Dukuzumurenyi is an Afrikan-centered educator, public policy analyst, public administration scholar, political scientist, and public lecturer on Afrikan education, Nation-building, history, economics, politics and spirituality emphasizing systems design and strategic planning in the development of Afrikan political, military, social and economic agency. He has served the Afrikan community as an Afrikan American Studies, Geography and Economics teacher in the East Baton Rouge Parish School System of the United States for nine years, as an Adjunct Professor of Political Science at Southern University A & M College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for one year and as Associate Director of Research and Publication, Editor of the Journal of East Afrikan Research and Lecturer on the Faculties of Education, Cultural Anthropology and Tourism, Business and Development Studies at the University of Iringa in the United Republic of Tanzania, East Afrika for two plus years. He is also the founder and director of the University of New Timbuktu System SBЗ/Seba Press. The guiding influences for Dr. Dukuzumurenyi have been the works of Dr. Amos N. Wilson, Dr. Asa Hilliard, Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Dr. Yosef Ben-Jochanan, Dr. Marimba Ani, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah, Minister Malcolm X, Stephen Biko, Shaka Zulu, Mangaliso Sobukwe & Ptahhotep to name only a select few.



[1] In this article two calendars will be presented as a guide to recorded events. One is the Julian calendar to which all in the Eurocentric countries and their former colonies are familiar with. Its divisions used here are BCE, Before the Common Era and CE, the Common Era. The second calendar is labeled KC, for Kemet/Kush Calendar. This Kemet/Kush calendar was based on the Sopdet Year [Sothic Cycle]. The German Egyptologist Eduard Meyer of the Berlin School of Egyptology developed the Sothic Theory in 1904. See: Eduard Meyer, Ägyptische Chronologie, (Akademie der Wissenschaften: Berlin, 1904). The Sothic Theory is based on the 1,460 year cycle of the star Sopdet [Sirius]. The Peret Sopdet, heliacal rising of Sopdet, is mentioned in many Kemetic documents as occurring in the same observational position every 1,460 years would occur on the Wep Renpet or Kemetic New Year. The earliest Sopdet Year as calculated by Eduard Meyer occurred in 4241 BCE, with a second Sopdet Year occurring in c. 1461 KC [c. 2780 BCE] during the 4th Kemetic Dynasty. Another Sopdet Year is stated to have occurred during the 12th Dynasty in the seventh year of Per-aa Sesotris III according to the Illahun Papyrus. The Eberus Medical Papyrus also states that a Sopdet Year occurred in the ninth year of the 18th Dynasty Per-aa Amenhotep I. Another possible Calendar consists of the date given by Manetho as recorded by the Hersetha [University Priestesses and Priests] of c. 32284 BKC [c. 36,525 BCE] which according to Kemetic texts was the year when the first Divine Rulers arrived in Kemet from Southern Afrika, the Land where the Gods deigned to come down and commune with the ‘Blameless Ethiopians’. It is written about by the Hersetha as the Sep Tepi, the First Time a Golden Era of High Culture. While this event is relegated to Mythology by Egyptologists and Afrikologists for that matter, the written record of the Wahenga [Ancestors] reads as if this was a real event which literally occurred and not as if it is an allegorical tale. A third possible Calendar of Kemet/Kush origin would begin in the year c. 7301 BKC [c. 11,542 BCE] which is recorded by the Hersetha as the year in which ‘Men began to rule Men, following the Age of the Rule of the Gods. A fourth possible Calendar could be commenced from the date of c. 2039 BKC [c. 6280 BCE] which according to Ethiopian Sources is the date of the birth of Kush, the progenitor of the Kushites and the Kushite Kingdom. Babu Yosef ben-Jochanan uses the first year of the establishment of United Dynastic Kemet c. 141 KC [c. 4100 BCE] as year one making the current year according to this dating 6113 NY [Nile Year]. Also there is the Lebombo implement [Bone] found in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo which dates to c. 32759 BKC [c. 37,000 BCE] which has 29 markings possibly signifying a lunisolar Afrikan calendar. In addition there is the Ishango Implement [Bone] found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is dated conservatively to c. 4759- 2259 BKC [c. 9000-6500 BCE] and may be as old as c. 20759 BKC [c. 25,000 BCE]. It is an Afrikan calendar that contains 39 marks, used as a notation system for calculating the monthly phases of the moon. The Ishango Implement could be used as year one of an Afrikan oriented calendar system. Using any of these or other Afrikan calendars is an elementary must to free Afrikans from the tyranny of Eurocentric records of time which severely limit Afrikans to a box of European Mythological Reality. Consider that, the current calendar utilized by Europeans is centered on the Birth of the Mythical Yeshuwa the Messiah [Jesus the Christ], dividing time into BC [Before Christ] and A.D. [The year of the Lord- Yeshuwa] This calendar defines all human events in relation to a Mythological Event of European derivation and limits human history ostensibly to 4004 BCE, the supposed date of creation. Within this time system all Afrikan acts are relegated to points in time when Europeans encountered Afrikans. A calendar of Afrikan origin greatly expands Afrikan historical memory, places Afrikans in the subjective seat of active agents in time and connects Afrikans of today with a long history replete with Afrikan cultural, social, political and economic progression and regression. For additional reading see: John G. Jackson, Introduction to African Civilization (New York: Citadel Press, 1994) pp. 259; J. A. Rogers, 100 Amazing Facts About The Negro (St. Petersburg, Fl: Helga M. Rogers, 1957) pp.21; James Henry Breasted, A History of Egypt (New York: Bantam Books, 1967) pp. 16; Gerald Massey, A Book of the Beginnings Vol. I (New York: A&B Publishers, 1994) pp. 28; W. G. Waddell, Manetho: With An English Translation (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940)

[2] From Forthcoming Book: ‘Pert.Em.Hru: Book of Coming Forth By Day’ [Pre-Dynastic Kemet/Early Dynastic Kush, 8000-4241 KC/BCE] Trans., Ambakisye-Okang Dukuzumurenyi, Arkhet Nti Rekh: Books of Knowing Vol. II (Iringa, Tanzania.: A. Dukuzumurenyi, 2017)

[3] Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution: An Introduction to the Dialectical Thinking of Hegel and Marx (London: Oxford University Press, 1941); Herbert Marcuse, “Ethics and Revolution," in Kultur und Gesellschaft Vol. II (Frankfurt, Germany: Suhrkamp, 1965) pp. 130-146; Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth Trans. Constance Farrington (New York: Grove Press, 1965)

[4] Translation by the author for other translations see: A. H. Sayce (Ed.), Records of the Past: Being English Translations of the Ancient Monuments of Egypt and Western Asia Vol. I-IV (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons Limited, 1888); Gaston Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria Vol. IV The First Chaldean Empire and the Hyksos in Egypt (London: The Grolier Society Publishers, 1903); Alan H. Gardiner (Ed.), Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum Vol. I Text (London: British Museum, 1935); James B. Pritchard (Ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969); William Kelly Simpson (Ed.), The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972); John Lawrence Foster, Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001); Adolf Erman, Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Collection of Poems, Narratives and Manuals of Instructions from the Third and Second Millennia BC Aylward M. Blackman (Trans.), (New York: Kegan Paul, 2005)

[5] Border Stela of PR ‘З/Per-aa XЗXЗWR SNWSRT/Khakhaure Senusret III, NSW BITY/Nesu Bity, PR ‘З/Per-aa XII c. 2363- 2381 KC [c. 1878-1860 BCE]

[6] For Medu Neter text transcript see: George S. Teindorff, Urkunden des Aegyptischen Altertums Vol. XX-XXI (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1904) pp. 10-16; Kurt Sethe and Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Historisch-biographische Urkunden Vol. V (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1906) pp. 4-14.

[7] See WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese Stela Luxor Museum, Luxor Egypt and the WЗDXPRR QЗMS/Wadjkheperre Kamese Tablet, erroneously called the Carnarvon Tablet in the Egyptian Museum Cairo, Egypt. This is a new translation for this text. For other translations see: Kurt Sethe and Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18 Dynastie: Historisch-biographische Urkunden Vol. V (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1906); James B. Pritchard, (ed.) Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969); William Kelly Simpson (Ed.), The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972); K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800-1550 BC (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997); Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Paris: Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988); E.D. Oren, (Ed.), The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997); John Lawrence Foster, Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)

[8] This is a new translation for this text. For other translations see: James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest Vol. II The Eighteenth Dynasty (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1906) pp. 6-9; Kurt Sethe and Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18 Dynastie: Historisch-biographische Urkunden Vol. V (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1906); James B. Pritchard, (ed.) Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969); William Kelly Simpson (Ed.), The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972)

[9] “Book of II Kings 6:24-7:20,” William Tyndale, (Trans.) Holy Bible (London, 1530); Lancelot C. L. Brenton, (Trans.) The Septuagint: With Apocrypha (London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., 1851); “Christian Old Testament,” Holy Bible: With Apocrypha King James Version (London, England:, 1611) and New International Version (Colorado Springs: International Bible Society, 1984)

Ambakisye-Okang Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi
Ambakisye-Okang Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi, © 2015

The author has 2 publications published on Modern Ghana.Column: AmbakisyeDukuzumurenyi

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