The military junta took over Ghana on February 24, 1966, when the president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, was on an official visit to China. In a letter to US President Johnson regarding these events, US National Security Council employee Robert Comer wrote: "The coup in Ghana is another example of luck, Nkrumah has done more than any other black African to undermine our interests." It is well known that the CIA played a significant part in Nkrumah's removal, but little is known about Franklin H. Williams, the first US ambassador to Ghana, who offered the military 13 million dollars to topple him.
Nkrumah was adamant from the start that the aim of the national liberation movement was not only to achieve independence but also to build a socialist democracy and improve the welfare of the populace. However, at the time, he did not associate socialism with class conflict, which he at first did not even acknowledge existed among Africans. Nkrumah stated that continuing the fight against imperialist exploitation was necessary for achieving full national independence in both the economy and politics.
The first US ambassador to Ghana, Franklin H. Williams, offered Nkrumah's generals 13 million dollars to assassinate him, but they couldn't, so they waited for him to leave the country to plan his removal.
In Nkrumah's opinion, imperialism poses the greatest threat to African people. He examined strategies for reestablishing imperialist dominance in the form of neocolonialism in his 1965 book Neocolonialism as the Last Stage of Imperialism, including imposing defensive agreements and opening military bases, backing puppet governments, economic control through financial and technical aid and loans, unfair trade terms, and suffocating local economies with international sanctions.
As we can see, the exploitation of African nations by the West and the US government continues in numerous ways even though all African nations have achieved freedom. Nkrumah asserted that to achieve true national independence in politics and the economy, it was necessary to maintain the fight against imperialist exploitation and restrain bourgeois elements' egotistical ambitions. Uniting the revolutionary forces across the continent is necessary to win this conflict.
Even in the early years of Nkrumah's stay in the United States, he was aware of the mission of liberating Africa before him. After a ten-year stay in the United States, Nkrumah arrived in London in May 1945, where African nationalists lived abstract nationalist dreams and of his contemporary intellectuals, he was most significantly influenced by Marcus Garvey, W. E. B. Dubois, and George Padmore.
Kwame Nkrumah had to cope with tribalism in addition to the main challenge of freeing his nation from the colonial yoke. Nkrumah wrote in his book "Dark Days in Ghana": "I had to fight not only against tribalism, but also against the African tradition that holds that a person's first duty is a duty to his extended family and, therefore, nepotism is the greatest virtue. Tribalism's negative impacts are still quite strong, even though I believe it has largely been eliminated as an active force,” he added.
Nkrumah had escaped many assassination attempts by the beginning of the 1960s, which certainly involved both internal and overseas foes. In October 1965, he issued a paper titled "Neocolonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism," without any fear or intimidation. The book provoked the US government and the Ghanaian Ambassador in Washington received a strong protest" from Assistant Secretary of State, G. Mennen Williams, over the publication of Nkrumah’s report, and he issued a warning about the unavoidable repercussions that will undoubtedly become apparent in due course.
The intense political upheaval occurred two days after the US Secretary of State's announcement on November 20, 1965, refusing to accede to Nkrumah's request for $100 million in food supplies. The US Embassy in Ghana informed the CIA's Deputy Director of developments regarding the Nkrumah assassination plot on February 10, 1965, and in January 1966, the first American Ambassador to Ghana, an African-American named Franklin H. Williams, who graduated from Lincoln University in 1942, the same university Nkrumah was a student.
The ambassador made a $ 13 million assassination or overthrow offer to Nkrumah's generals. “Afrifa and Kotoka should have received the lion's share, but only their cowardice out of fear of failure stopped the killing,” according to Nkrumah, who was aware of the conspiracy. They, therefore, waited until Nkrumah left the nation for China and was deposed. The former Ghanaian leader was in exile in Guinea, until he passed away in Bucharest, Romania, on April 27, 1972, while undergoing medical attention due to poor health.