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Ghana

Asante (Ashanti) History Much of the modern nation of Ghana

Living languages

Abron         

[abr] 1,050,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 1,181,700. Southwestern Ghana, northwest of Asante Twi. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names:
Brong, Bron, Doma, Gyaman.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Central, Akan
Adamorobe Sign Language      
[ads] 3,400 including hearing people (2003). Adamorobe, a
village in the Eastern Region. The district capital is
Aburi. Classification: Deaf sign language

Adangbe

[adq] Population total all countries: 2,000. Border area with Togo directly east of Ho. Agotime are mainly in Ghana.  Volta Region. Ghana towns are Kpoeta, Apegame, and others.  Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Dangbe, Adantonwi, Agotime, Adan.  Dialects: Close to Igo.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank,
Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili

Adele       

[ade] 11,000 in Ghana (2003). East central border with Togo.  Upper Adele is in Togo, Lower Adele in Ghana. Alternate names: Gidire, Bidire.  Dialects: Upper Adele, Lower Adele.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele

Ahanta       

[aha] 142,000 (2003). Southwest coast. Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo,
Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern

Akan         

[aka] 8,300,000 (2004 SIL). Population includes 2,800,000 Asante Twi, 1,900,000 Fante, 555,000 Akuapem Twi (2004). The Asante are south central, Ashanti Province. The Akuapem are southeast, in areas north of Accra. The Fante are south central, between Winneba, Takoradi, and Obuasi. Dialects:
Fante (Fanti, Mfantse), Akuapem (Akwapem Twi, Twi, Akuapim, Akwapi), Asante (Ashante Twi, Asanti, Achanti), Agona, Dankyira, Asen, Akyem Bosome, Kwawu (Kwahu), Ahafo.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan
Akposo           
[kpo] 7,500 in Ghana (2003). Southern. Alternate names:
Kposo, Ikposo, Akposso.  Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank,
Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili
Animere          
[anf] 700 (2003). East central, Kecheibi and Kunda villages,
remote location. None in Togo. Alternate names: Anyimere,
Kunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere
Anufo  
[cko] 66,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all
countries: 137,600. Northeast around Wawjayga. Also spoken
in Benin, Togo. Alternate names: Chokosi, Chakosi, Kyokosi,
Tchokossi, Tiokossi.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Central, Bia, Northern

Anyin         

[any] 250,000 in Ghana (2003). Between Abron to the north, Nzema to the south, Côte d’Ivoire to the west, Twi to the east. The Aowin dialect is in Ghana. Alternate names: Anyi, Agni.  Dialects: Aowin (Brissa, Brosa).  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo,
Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern

Avatime      

[avn] 24,000 (2003). Southeast, center at Amedzofe (Amajofe). Alternate names: Afatime, Sideme, Sia.  Dialects:
Close to Nyangbo, Tafi.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo

Awutu        

[afu] 180,000 (2003). Coast, west of Accra. Dialects: Awutu,
Efutu, Senya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang

Bimoba      

[bim] 120,000 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 200,000.  Northeast, Gambaga District, south of Kusaasi, north of Konkomba. Alternate names: Moar, Moor.  Dialects: Related to Moba of Togo, but not inherently intelligible with it.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba

Birifor, Southern

[biv] 125,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 129,308. Northwest corner. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Birifo, Ghana Birifor.  Dialects:
A separate language from Wali, Dagaari, Malba-Birifor of
Burkina Faso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta,
Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor

Bissa          

[bib] 165,900 in Ghana (2003). Northeast. Alternate names:

Bisa.  Dialects: Lebir (Western Bisa), Baraka (Eastern

Bisa).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern,
Eastern, Bissa

Buli   

[bwu] 150,000 (2003 GILLBT). Sandema District. None in
Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Builsa, Bulisa, Kanjaga,
Guresha.  Dialects: Konni is the closest language. Lexical
similarity 77% with Mampruli.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern,
Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma
Chakali            
[cli] 6,000 (2003 GILLBT). East of Wa. Ducie is largest
village. Dialects: Lexical similarity is 62% with Tampulma,
68% with Vagla.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern,
Grusi, Western

Chala         

[cll] 3,000 (2003 GILLBT). Villages of Nkwanta, Odomi, Ago in the Volta Region. Jadigbe village near Seipe, south of Ekumdipe in the Northern Region is 35% Chala. None in Togo.
Alternate names: Tshala, Cala.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern,
Grusi, Eastern
Cherepon        
[cpn] 111,000 (2003). A pocket between the Ga and Twi areas,
north of Larteh. Alternate names: Okere, Kyerepong,
Chiripong, Chiripon.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Guang, South Guang

Chumburung       

[ncu] 69,000 (2004 SIL). Population includes 2,700 Yeji. A triangular area with Volta Lake on the south, Daka River on the northwest, Yeji south of the lake. Alternate names:
Nchumburung, Nchimburu, Nchummuru, Kyongborong.  Dialects:
Northern Chumburung (Banda), Southern Chumburung (Lonto, Gurubi, Chinderi, Bejamse, Borae), Yeji (Yedji). Reported to be intelligible with Krache; however, Krache speakers are not inclined to use Chumburung materials. Lexical similarity 77% with Yeji, 79% with Kplang, 78% with Krache, 69% with Dwang, 67% with Nawuri and Gichode, 60% with Gonja.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang
Dagaare, Southern       


[dga] 700,000 (2003). 1,000,000 including Northern Dagara in Burkina Faso (2003). Northwest corner of Ghana, western part of Upper West Region. Alternate names: Southern Dagari, Dagari, Dagara, Degati, Dagati, Dogaari, Dagaare.  Dialects:
Dagaare and Birifor are partially intelligible. It is distinct from Northern Dagara in Burkina Faso.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western,
Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari

Dagbani     

[dag] 800,000 (2004 SIL). Northeast around Tamale and as far as Yendi. Alternate names: Dagbane, Dagomba, Dagbamba.  Dialects: Nanuni (Nanumba). Lexical similarity 95% with Mampruli, 90% with Talni, 89% with Kusaal.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast

Dangme     

[ada] 800,000 (2004 SIL). Southeast, coast east of Accra and
inland. Alternate names: Adangme.  Dialects: Ada, Ningo,
Osu, Shai, Gbugbla, Krobo.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme

Deg  

[mzw] 26,400 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 27,500. West central, west of Volta Lake. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Degha, Mo, Mmfo, Aculo, Janela, Buru.  Dialects: Longoro, Mangum, Boe.
Lexical similarity 78% with Vagla.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Western

Delo  

[ntr] 10,900 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 16,300. East central border with Togo. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 20 miles south of Nkwanta.
Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Ntrubo, Ntribu,
Ntribou.  Dialects: It has been reclassified from Kwa to Gur
family.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

Dompo       

[doy] 60 to 70 (1999 Blench). Ethnic population: 965 (2000 WCD). Brong-Ahafo Region, a quarter of Banda called Dompofie. Alternate names: Dumpo, Ndmpo.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo,
Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang

Dwang       

[nnu] 8,200 (2003 GILLBT). Population includes 1,600 Bekye, 3,300 Kenyen, 3,300 Wiase. South of Volta Lake and the Chumburung, east of Atebubu. Alternate names: Dwan, Nchumunu.  Dialects: Bekye, Kenyen, Wiase. A dialect cluster. Closest to Kplang. 75% comprehension of Chumburung.  Krache is understood well because of contact.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang
English
[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West,
English

Éwé  

[ewe] 2,250,500 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 3,112,400. Southeast corner. Also spoken in Togo.  Alternate names: Eibe, Ebwe, Eve, Efe, Eue, Vhe, Gbe, Krepi, Krepe, Popo.  Dialects: Anglo (Anlo), Awuna, Hudu, Kotafoa.  Westernmost language of the Gbe language cluster.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

Farefare     

[gur] 820,000 in Ghana (2003). Population includes up to 656,000 in the Upper East Region, and at least 164,000 in various towns and cities in other regions (2003). Population total all countries: 845,100. Northeast Ghana, Upper East Region around Bolgatanga, Frafra District, and as far west as Navrongo. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names:
Frafra, Gurenne, Gurune, Nankani.  Dialects: Gurune (Gudenne, Gurenne, Gudeni, Zuadeni), Nankani (Naani, Nankanse), Booni, Talni (Talensi, Talene), Nabt (Nabit, Nabde, Nabte, Nabdam, Nabdug, Nabrug, Nabnam, Namnam). 5 major dialects and many minor ones, all able to use the published materials. The dialects are divided according to geography and ethnic sub-boundaries. Some dialects are named after towns or localities. Speakers consider Dagaare in particular to be a sister language.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest
Fulfulde, Maasina        
[ffm] 7,300 in Ghana (1991). Northern, in small groups.
Alternate names: Peul, Fulbe, Maacina.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern,
Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

Ga    

[gaa] 600,000 (2004 SIL). Southeast, coast around Accra.
Alternate names: Amina, Gain, Accra, Acra.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme


Ghanaian Sign Language          
[gse]   Dialects: Related to American and Nigerian sign languages. Brought in 1957 by missionary Andrew Foster.  Differs from American Sign Language in lexicon. There are new and local signs, and some modified from ASL.
Classification: Deaf sign language


Gikyode          
[acd] 10,400 (2003). East central, on the border with Togo.
Remote. 9 villages. Alternate names: Kyode, Chode.
Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Ginyanga of Togo.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang


Gonja  
[gjn] 230,000 (2004 SIL). In the southern part of the Northern Region, west central Ghana, around the upper branches of the Volta Lake, and from the Black Volta River to the area on both sides of the White Volta. Alternate names: Ngbanyito.  Dialects: Gonja, Choruba (Choroba). It is not intelligible with Chumburung.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo,
Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang


Gua     
[gwx] 60,200 (2003). A pocket in Éwé area. Alternate names: Anum-Boso, Gwa.  Dialects: Anu (Anum), Boso.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang


Hanga
[hag] 6,800 (2003 GILLBT). Population includes 4,100 in the traditional area, 2,700 elsewhere. North central, southeast of the Mole game reserve, Damongo District. The biggest village is Murugu. Alternate names: Anga.  Dialects:
Northern Hanga, Southern Hanga. Kamara is a separate
language. Subdialects of Southern Hanga are Langantere,
Murugu, Damongo; subdialects of Northern Hanga are Yazori
and Bowena. Lexical similarity 84% with Dagaare and
Farefare.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta,
Western, Southeast


Hausa  
[hau]   Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1


Jwira-Pepesa   
[jwi] 18,000 (2003 GILLBT). Southwest corner. The Jwira live north of Axim from Bamiankaw to Humjibere along the Ankobra River (18 villages). The Pepesa live on Wasa land between Agona Junction and Tarkwa. Dompim is the main town. A mountain range separates the two groups. Alternate names:
Pepesa-Jwira.  Dialects: Jwira, Pepesa. 60% intelligibility
of Nzema.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia,
Southern


Kabiyé            
[kbp]  North. Alternate names: Kabire, Cabrai, Kabure,
Kabye, Cabrais.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern,
Grusi, Eastern


Kamara           
[jmr] 3,000 (2003 GILLBT). Ethnic population: 5,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Larabanga village, about 10 miles along the road west of Damongo, in the middle of the Northern Region, on the edge of the Hanga area. Safaliba sources report another small village about 15 to 20 miles south of Bole.  Some ethnic Kamara in Mandari speak Safaliba, not Kamara. J.
Becuwe reports a population of 3,000 in Bouna, Côte
d’Ivoire (1981). Dialects: Significantly different from
Hanga, and distinct culturally. Closer to Dagbani than to
Hanga (G. Hunt 1997).  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern,
Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast


Kantosi           
[xkt] 2,300 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Population includes 280 to 400 in Sandema District, probably about 280 in Kpaliwongo. North central Ghana, Sandema District, among the Bulsa (Buli language). Other settlements near Wa, in Navrongo, Bolgatonga, Nalerigu, and Kpaliwogo. They say Kpaliwongo, a village southeast of Funsi (Upper West Region), is their place of origin. After being destroyed during the days of slave-raiding, it was rebuilt and Kantosis have moved back. Also spoken in Burkina Faso.  Alternate names: Kantonsi, Yare, Yarsi, Dagaare-Dioula.
Dialects: Close to Kamara, Farefare, Dagbani.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast


Kasem            
[xsm] 130,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). North central (Navrongo District). Alternate names: Kasena, Kassena, Kassene.
Dialects: Nunuma, Lela, Kasem, Fere.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern


Konkomba      
[xon] 500,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 550,100. Northeast border area around Guerin, Yendi District. Many groups are scattered throughout north central Ghana. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names:
Likpakpaln, Kpankpam, Kom Komba.  Dialects:
Lichabool-Nalong, Limonkpel, Linafiel, Likoonli, Ligbeln.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma


Konni  
[kma] 3,800 (2003 GILLBT). Remote and isolated. Southeast of the Sisaala and west of the Mamprusi. No roads. 5 villages;
Yikpabongo is the main one, Nangurima is another. Alternate names: Koni, Koma, Komung.  Dialects: Related to Mampruli, Hanga, Buli. Lexical similarity 60% with Buli.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma


Kplang            
[kph] 1,600 (2003 GILLBT). South of Volta Lake, south of
Yeji (Chumburung). Alternate names: Prang.  Dialects: 73%
intelligibility of Chumburung. 96% comprehension of Yeji due
to proximity. Lexical similarity 92% with Yeji Chumburung,
79% with Chumburung.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Guang, North Guang


Krache            
[kye] 58,000 (2004 SIL). Central, near Nchimburu, area of Kete Krachi. Alternate names: Krachi, Krakye, Kaakyi.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang


Kulango, Bondoukou   
[kzc] 27,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). West central, west of Wenchi. Alternate names: Nkuraeng, Nkurange, Koulango, Kulange, Kolango, Bonduku Kulango.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango


Kulango, Bouna           
[nku] 15,500 in Ghana (1991). West central border area.
Alternate names: Nkuraeng, Buna Kulango, Bouna Koulango.
Dialects: Sekwa, Nabanj.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango


Kusaal
[kus] 420,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population includes 350,000 Angole, 70,000 Toende. Population total all countries: 437,000. Northeast corner, Bawku District. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Kusale, Kusasi.  Dialects: Angole (Eastern Kusaal), Toende (Western Kusaal).  Further investigation of Toende in Burkina Faso is needed, including inherent intelligibility and language attitudes.  Possible marginal intelligibility of Eastern (Angole) Kusaal. Many claim to be able to understand the related languages: Mòoré, Dagbani, Mampruli, Farefare (Gurenne).  Kusaal is a member of the Mòoré-Dagbani cluster.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western,
Southeast, Kusaal


Lama   
[las] Several hundred or perhaps thousands in Ghana (1996).  About 100 km south of Bassar, over to Yendi, and even as far as Tamale, and southeast of Tamale. Alternate names: Lamba, Losso.  Dialects: Kadjala (Kadjalla).  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern


Larteh
[lar] 74,000 (2003 GILLBT). A pocket in the Ga and Twi areas, south of Cherepon. Alternate names: Late, Lete, Gua.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang


Lelemi
[lef] 48,900 (2003). Southeast, town of Jasikan. Alternate
names: Lefana, Lafana, Buem.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu


Ligbi    
[lig] 15,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Population total all countries: 19,000. Numasa, northwest Brong-Ahafo, East of Sampa and northwest of Wenchi. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Ligwi, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tuba, Banda, Dzowo, Namasa, Tsie, Weila, Wiila, Weela, Jogo. 

Dialects:
Bungase, Gyogo, Hwela (Weila, Wiila, Weela, Vwela), Dwera (Manji-Kasa), Atumfuor (Atumfuor-Kasa), Ntoleh.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western,
Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo


Logba
[lgq] 7,500 (2003). Southeast. Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba


Mampruli         
[maw] 220,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). East and west of Gambaga, northeast Northern Region. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Mamprule, Manpelle, Ngmamperli.  Dialects: Eastern Mampruli, Western Mampruli. 50% intelligibility of Dagbani.  Lexical similarity 95% with Dagbani, 90% with Farefare.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast


Nafaanra         
[nfr] 61,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Western border, east of Bondoukou in Côte d’Ivoire. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Nafana, Nafaara, Pantera-Fantera, Banda, Dzama, Gambo.  Dialects: Pantera, Fantera.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra


Nawdm           
[nmz]  In Accra, Ho, Kpandu, and Volta Region. Alternate
names: Naudm, Nawdam, Naoudem.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern,
Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm


Nawuri            
[naw] 14,000 (2003 GILLBT). East central, mostly on the western bank of the Oti River branch of Lake Volta.  Dialects: Closest inherent intelligibility of Gikyode. Not intelligible with Chumburung. Highest lexical similarity with the Buipe dialect of Gonja (72%).  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo,
Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang


Nchumbulu      
[nlu] 1,800 (2003 SIL). Three villages west of Volta Lake
near Kplang. Dialects: May use Chumburung or Dwan
literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang


Nkonya           
[nko] 28,000 (2004 SIL). Southeast Ghana, northwest of the
Éwé. Some among the Gua. Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Guang, North Guang


Ntcham           
[bud] 57,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL).  Alternate names: Tobote, Ncham, Bassar, Bassari, Basari, Basar, Basare.  Dialects:
Bitaapul.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta,
Gurma, Ntcham


Nyangbo         
[nyb] 6,400 (2003). Southeast Ghana. Alternate names:
Tutrugbu.  Dialects: People who have had no contact with Tafi had 67% intelligibility of it on tests; people 30 to 50 years old had nearly perfect comprehension. There are reported to be only phonological differences.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo


Nzema            
[nzi] 262,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,700. Southwest corner. Also spoken in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Nzima, Appolo.  Dialects: Evalue.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,


Paasaal            
[sig] 36,000 (2003 GILLBT). Upper West Region, 80 km south of Tumu, 105 km east of Wa, about 18 villages. Alternate names: Pasaale, Funsile, Southern Sisaala, Pasaale Sisaala.  Dialects: Gilbagala, Pasaali. Gilbagala is closer to Paasaal than to Tumulung Sisaala. The dialect in Funsi Kundogo is predominant among the Paasaal villages.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Western


Safaliba           
[saf] 4,000 (2003). Immediately west and south of Bole, western Northern Region. Villages of Mandari, Tanyire, Manfuli, and Gbenfu, and settlements in the nearby towns of Bote, Sawla, Kalba. Speakers also reported in Vonkoro and Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Safali, Safalaba, Safalba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 79% with Dagaari.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest


Sehwi  
[sfw] 250,000 (2003). Southwest Ghana. Alternate names:
Sefwi, Asahyue.  Dialects: Close to Anyin of Côte
d’Ivoire.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia,
Northern


Sekpele           
[lip] 23,400 (2003). Southeast, north of Hohoe. Alternate names: Likpe, Mu, Bosele.  Dialects: Sekwa, Sekpele.
Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo,
Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi


Selee   
[snw] 11,300 (2003 GILLBT). Southeast, villages of Benua,
Bume, Gbodome. Alternate names: Santrokofi, Sentrokofi,
Bale, Sele.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi


Sisaala, Tumulung        
[sil] 105,000 (2003 GILLBT). North central, Tumu District.
Alternate names: Sisai, Issala, Hissala, Sisala Tumu,
Isaalung.  Dialects: Isala, Gil Bagale (Galebagla), Nsihaa,
Potule.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western


Sisaala, Western          
[ssl] 30,000 (2003 GILLBT). North central, Lambusie and
surrounding towns. Alternate names: Busillu Sisala, Sisai,
Issala, Hissala.  Dialects: Close to Sissala of Burkina
Faso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western


Siwu    
[akp] 27,000 (2003). Southeast, north of Hohoé. Alternate names: Akpafu-Lolobi, Lolobi-Akpafu, Siwusi.  Dialects:
Akpafu, Lolobi. Lolobi and Akpafu are inherently
intelligible, but have been politically separate since the
1800s. A population sample averaged 66% comprehension of
Éwé mixed discourse types.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi,
Lelemi-Akpafu


Tafi     
[tcd] 4,400 (2003). East central, near the Togo border. None in Togo. Alternate names: Tegbo.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank,
Avatime-Nyangbo


Tampulma       
[tpm] 16,000 (2003). North central, south of Sisaala, Damongo District, 25 villages. Alternate names: Tamprusi, Tampole, Tampolem, Tampolense, Tamplima, Tampele.  Dialects:
2 inherently intelligible dialects. Lexical similarity 62%
with Chakali.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western


Tem    
[kdh] 53,000 in Ghana. Most in Accra. Alternate names:
Kotokoli, Cotocoli, Tim, Timu, Temba.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern


Tuwuli
[bov] 11,400 (2003 GILLBT). Volta Region, from Volta Lake
eastward to Amanfro on the Hohoe-Jasikan road. Not found in
Togo. Alternate names: Bowiri, Bowili, Liwuli, Siwuri,
Bawuli, Tuwili.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank,
Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili


Vagla  
[vag] 13,500 (2003 GILLBT). West central near Sawla, Northern Province, Damongo District. Alternate names:
Vagala, Sitigo, Kira, Konosarola, Paxala.  Dialects: Bole, Buge. Lexical similarity 68% with Chakali.  Classification:
Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur,
Central, Southern, Grusi, Western


Wali    
[wlx] 138,000 (2003). Northwest corner. Alternate names:
Waali, Wala, Ala, Ouala.  Dialects: Fufula, Yeri Waali,
Cherii, ‘Bulengee, ‘Dolimi. Distinct from Birifor and
Dagaari.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo,
Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta,
Western, Northwest


Wasa  
[wss] 309,000 (2003). Southwestern Ghana. Alternate names:
Wasaw, Wassa.  Dialects: Amenfi, Fianse. Some
intelligibility of Abron.  Classification: Niger-Congo,
Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano,
Central, Akan



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